What is Engineering, Who is an Engineer?
The word engineer means a person who is engaged in geometry (hendese) in Arabic, who knows geometry.
Engineer, principles of urban and non-zoning areas such as roads, bridges, buildings, landscaping, environment, public works; food such as agriculture, nutrition; science such as physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, electronics; A person who is specialized in technical and social fields such as aircraft, ships, automobiles, engines, construction machinery and has received a certain education. In the modern sense, an Engineer is a person who transforms the theoretical knowledge produced by scientists into practical knowledge that Technicians and Technicians can apply.
The main Engineering branches that play an active role in the sector are defined as follows.
- Civil Engineering
- Facade Engineering
- Environmental engineering
- Mechanical Engineering
Civil Engineering is the basic engineering branch that combines materials and techniques in the best way and deals with plans, projects, construction and inspection of structures. Civil Engineers work on all kinds of buildings, dams, airports, bridges, roads, aqueducts, ports, sewers, water networks, tunnels, railways, high-speed train projects, subways, etc. It conducts training and research on the planning, design, construction and control of service and industrial structures.
Civil Engineering, which is also accepted as the mother of engineering, is the oldest basic engineering branch after Military Engineering and the English word meaning “Civil Engineering” was first used in the 18th century. It is also used to distinguish non-military engineering studies from Military Engineering. Civil Engineering is one of the founding engineering fields. Since Civil Engineering covers a wide area, there is a need to specialize in various branches. Major of these fields are Facade Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Coastal Engineering, Structural Engineering, Foundation Engineering, Water Engineering, Transportation Engineering etc. are subjects.
Façades are one of the biggest and most important elements in the overall aesthetic and technical performance of a building. Facade Engineering is the art and science of solving aesthetic, environmental and structural problems to achieve effective protection of buildings.
Specialized companies are located in this niche sector of the building industry, and engineers operate within the technical divisions of these specialist manufacturing companies. In general, Facade Engineers are particularly qualified in the discipline of Facade Engineering and Consulting and work with the design team on construction projects for architects, building owners, construction managers and product manufacturers.
Facade Engineers must consider aspects such as the design, certification, fabrication and installation of façades in relation to the performance of materials, aesthetic appearance, structural behavior, air-water tightness, safety and serviceability, safety, maintenance and constructability. The knowledge base will include topics such as computational fluid dynamics, heat transfer through two- and three-dimensional structures, behavior of materials, production methodologies, Structural Engineering and logistics.
Over time, the specialized knowledge required in this niche sector has led to the need to collaborate with Architects, Structural and Mechanical Engineers as buildings become more complex and Building Information Modeling (BIM) is introduced.
Building facades are considered one of the most expensive and potentially the highest risk elements of any large project. Building facades have the highest level of wear in a building compared to other building elements, and the pressure of change and adaptation is higher than other elements of a building due to environmental and energy performance needs. As a result, it can be said that Facade Engineering is now a science in itself.
Environmental Engineering is a branch of engineering related to the use of natural resources and the creation of environmental conditions suitable for human health. Unlike other engineering branches, it is an engineering branch that tries to give back to nature what it has, not to consume the resources of nature.
The main working areas of Environmental Engineers are; water and wastewater treatment, air pollution control, solid waste disposal, soil pollution, noise pollution, etc. is The main field of activity of Environmental Engineering, which is an “engineering” branch, is to determine the first priority and purpose for water, air and soil, to determine what needs to be done to prevent these environments from being polluted, and to put into practice what needs to be done before they become contaminated. Secondly, if any of these environments is contaminated in any way, it is to determine and put into practice what will be done to return this environment to its natural state. While doing this, the most suitable technological solutions are researched and the measures to be applied are determined. Machinery, construction, chemistry and biology disciplines are also used in the treatment projects applied to treat these wastes, mostly originating from industrial facilities. The design, construction and operation of domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants, water networks, transmission lines, design and construction of sewage plants can be listed as the subjects that environmental engineers are most interested in.
Environmental Engineering also deals with issues such as drinking water treatment, waste water recycling and reuse, preparation of environmental impact assessment report, air and soil pollution, in-plant process control and research of clean production technologies.
Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that works on the design, analysis, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical systems using basic physics principles and material technologies and can offer analytical solutions to problems by mathematically modeling physical events and situations.
Mechanical engineering, which is the oldest and largest engineering field of engineering activities, deals with machines, energy and manufacturing methods. Mechanical Engineers design and manufacture machines and equipment for all branches of industry as well as machine tools. E.g; turbines, printing presses, earthmoving machinery, food processors, air conditioning and cooling systems, artificial hearts and limbs, airplanes, diesel locomotives, automobiles, trucks, engines for mass transportation vehicles, etc. Mechanical Engineer designs and develops mechanical systems, gas and steam turbines, screw or reciprocating compressors, nuclear reactors, internal combustion engines, cooling, heating and ventilation systems, depending on the structure of the institution they work for. In doing so, they add value to the economy by considering the factors of convenience and cost.