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Curtain Wall

Curtain wall is defined as the application in which materials such as glass, stone, composite or metal sheet are used for coating on the exterior facades of buildings that do not have load-bearing properties in contemporary architecture.

Curtain wall is a facade cladding system made with knowledge and experience that will fulfill the requirements of building physics together with modern construction technique, without depending on standard designs and details, for all kinds of designs of architects and engineers that require special expertise such as high-rise buildings and prestige buildings.

Developed as a protective and preventive against external factors, curtain walls have become an indispensable element in office projects, high prestige buildings and non-standard designs today.

The reasons for preference for curtain wall are covering the shape faults of the buildings, sunlight, rain and noise, and aesthetic design.

In today’s architecture, glass material used together with natural stone, artificial stone, composite and metal plates on the facade is an indispensable material for prestige buildings, as it shows that architecture is not only a shelter but also a form of communication and a symbol.

Glass, one of the oldest known materials, has taken its place in today’s architecture after a long development process. Since the first half of the 20th century, it has not only been used in windows, but has been carried to the entire façade as a modern building material. With the introduction of high-tech glass, the parts consisting of transparent elements are no longer weak points in terms of heat permeability in the building envelope, and glass material emerges as an indispensable building material, the importance of which is increasing day by day.

The building envelope plays an important role in the creation of the appropriate physical environment within the building, depending on the external environmental conditions and functions, as well as the architectural formation of the buildings. As in every field, technological developments in the construction sector are making a continuous progress. Developments in construction materials and building construction techniques have also been effective on facade construction systems and have led to the emergence of the curtain wall concept. In this study, curtain wall systems are defined and the phases they have gone through in the historical process are stated and curtain wall types are explained.

It is possible to characterize any non-bearing wall as a kind of cladding. The curtain wall, which forms the outer shell of the building, consists of the vision part, which consists of glass panels and provides a visual connection with the exterior, and the parapet part, which is called the spandrel part, which consists of opaque or glass panels.

Looking at the history of the curtain wall system, it is seen that the first curtain wall application in the world was made on the facade of a two-storey bank building in Philadelphia in 1820. The first skyscraper with steel construction, which led to the curtain wall concept, is the Home Insurance building in Chicago, built in 1883. The Crystal Palace exhibition center, which was built in London in 1851, introduced a new concept to the world with its completely transparent shell, which was formed by using 300,000 pieces of glass placed between cast iron carrier bars.

With this development, the use of glass with metals has become widespread. One of the earliest buildings in the US to use glass and iron curtain walls was the 6-story Boley Clothing Company building, built in 1908. In these early periods of curtain walling, not only iron was used, but also metals such as bronze and copper, as well as iron and steel. One of the first examples of the use of curtain walls in high-rise buildings in the world, the Empire State Building, built in New York in 1929, was created from 4,000 aluminum spandrel panels and its construction was completed in 18 months.

Walter Gropius was one of the architects who has been using the curtain wall system in its current sense since 1913. The complete cladding of a building was accomplished in 1934 with the construction of a 12-story commercial center in Oregon. However, in those years, the curtain wall details could not go further than the adaptation of the joinery details to the facade. The first examples of curtain walls could not fully meet the comfort conditions expected from them, as they did not have insulated and processed glasses and suitable profiles.

The technology developed in the production of aluminum and glass has allowed the use of these two materials in combination on the facades, while the weight of the building has decreased and the possibility of raising floors has increased. The curtain wall system, which was used in high-rise buildings in the 1930s, exploded in the 1950s and became a symbol of high-rise buildings in a sense and found widespread use on the facades of modern buildings.

The first façade design, designed to be completely transparent and unobstructed, appeared in Mies Van Der Rohe’s sketches in 1922. The most important development in the transformation of this idea from theory to practice is increasing the structural strength of glass, namely tempering, which was discovered in France in 1928. In line with these developments, the realization of Rohe’s idea in a project was made by Henry Bernard in 1963 at the Maison de la Rodio building. The use of glass plates in various designs without the use of any frames has brought great design alternatives to architects.

Discovered in the Eastern Mediterranean about 4,000 years ago, BC. The development adventure of glass, which was started to be used in Egypt in 1500 and then moved to Venice and Austria and then to the whole world, still continues with the technological developments in the 21st century. In parallel with the developments in the world, curtain wall technology and high-rise buildings, which were not dared before, have entered the field of application in Turkey with technology transfers from developed countries and modern materials and continue to spread rapidly.

Curtain wall is an engineering, construction and assembly system that solves contemporary architectural concepts with the combination of aluminum and glass and puts original designs into practice.

Curtain wall is a facade cladding system made with knowledge and experience that will fulfill the requirements of building physics together with modern construction technique, without depending on standard designs and details, for all kinds of designs of architects and engineers that require special expertise such as high-rise buildings and prestige buildings.

Projects are handled in line with customer requests and project scopes and are prepared in the form of 3D designs, 2D detail analysis and color studies.

  • Curtainwall
  • R&D
  • Project Planning Production
  • It consists of manufacturing and assembly stages.

Curtain wall, in various load-bearing type buildings, is the combination of the main and intermediate carrier elements used in aluminum material of the outer surface of the building in a durable and functional way and integrating it with building materials such as glass, composite plate or aluminum plate.

  • It protects from sun rays and harmful external influences.
  • It protects buildings from rain, kinetic energy, capillary water absorption, relative humidity and noise.
  • It provides energy saving by enabling the use of insulation.
  • Prevents the appearance of cracks, eliminates possible plumbing errors.
  • There are no color and texture defects.
  • Maintenance and repair are minimized.
  • It is environmentally friendly.
  • It is functional and aesthetic.
  • It is light.

It is possible to classify curtain walls in 2 different ways, depending on the weight of the panels used on the facade. According to this:

Heavy suspended curtain wall: The system consisting of panels with a weight greater than 100 kg/m2 is called “heavy curtain curtain wall”.
Lightweight suspended curtain wall: The system consisting of panels with a weight of less than 100 kg/m2 is called “light suspended curtain wall”.

Heavy suspended curtain wall is a curtain wall system consisting of concrete-based panels. In the formation of these elements, materials such as normal concrete, lightweight concrete and aerated concrete are used. Static and dynamic loads are transferred to the structural interior walls and floors of the building with the help of metal fasteners.

The fact that concrete is a material with a high thermal conductivity coefficient necessitates the application of thermal insulation in heavy suspended curtain wall systems where concrete-based ready-made elements are used. The application area is much less in Turkey, as in the whole world, compared to lightweight suspended curtain wall systems.

In lightweight suspended curtain wall systems, the glass transport style of the joinery determines the type of curtain wall. Traditional joinery systems are also used in the formation of curtain walls. In this system called “Classical System”, the glass is placed inside the joinery slot and covered with a joinery lath along all its edges.

In the “suspended system”, the joinery elements sit on carrier profiles. Lightweight suspended curtain wall system is a type of curtain wall formed by transparent or opaque panels, in which the facade elements are placed on a carrier frame. The façade elements are carried by the load-bearing elements fixed to the beams and slab foreheads of the building with point connections.

In lightweight suspended curtain wall systems, the spandrel part is performed in 2 different ways. In other words, there are 2 types of parapet formation: In cases where the spandrel part is included in the suspended system, it is possible to talk about a “parapet” system, if it is formed with masonry elements. In the parapet system, the parapet is formed with reinforced concrete or masonry elements. Reinforced concrete parapets provide convenience in detailing fire and sound control systems between floors. The panels are mounted on the masonry parapet surface. In the parapetless system, the parapet is within the suspended facade. A part of the suspended facade forms the spandrel part as a transparent or opaque panel. It is a system that keeps the field losses at a minimum level.

Curtain facades are divided into 7 according to the type of facade coating used and the systems developed.

Covered facade systems
Classic capped facade systems
Classic capped facade system with thermal barrier
Structural silicone facade systems
Panel facade systems
Transparent facade systems
steel construction
Steel tensioned system
Insulated glass facade systems resistant to high temperature zones
Skylight systems
Composite panel facade systems
Composite panel
aluminum composite panel
Terra Cotta (metal facade aluminum systems)
Granite & Ceramic Coating
Joinery Facade Systems
Facades by system type
Coated facade system
Rod system – Panel system (Panel facade)
Precast precast concrete panel system
Glass facade system (spider facade)
According to the transparency
Hollow opaque
Transparent (translucent)
According to the load carrying situation
load bearing
non-load bearing
infill facade
According to the number of layers
single layer

Multiple layers

According to the carrier system load transfer
Primary carrier system-building carrier system
Secondary carrier system
According to the number of shells
Single-shell (Single-walled)
Bi-shell (Double-skinned)

Classic Covered Cap Facade Systems

The 50 mm wide aluminum cover profile used on the exterior surface of the curtain wall system can be designed in many different geometric forms according to the demands of the architects. The windows are mechanically attached to the horizontal and vertical axes with pressure strips from the outside. Air and water tightness of the system is provided by EPDM wicks used inside and outside. The cover profiles on the horizontal or vertical axis used on the outside can be canceled optionally, and silicone is applied to the joint gaps instead of these profiles. Thus, when viewed from the outside, the desired form is obtained either vertically or horizontally on the facade surface.

Classic Covered Facade System with Heat Barrier

It is a system designed with high thermal insulation and polyamide-heat barrier against condensation risks. In the classical closed facade system with thermal barrier, aluminum cover can be used on horizontal or vertical axes in accordance with the aesthetics of the facade. Aluminum covers used in horizontal and vertical axes are compatible with the covers used in the classical closed facade system.

In this facade system, if desired, a hidden wing system, the thickness of which is not known when closed, can also be used. When closed, the hidden wings, which are not visible from the outside, open outwards as a reverse transom, as in the classical heat barrier facade system.

Structural Glazing System

In the structural silicone facade system, there is no aluminum profile when viewed from the outside, and there are 17 mm wide and 15 mm deep joint gaps in the glass joints. Since the sealing between the glass panels is provided with double EPDM wick, no sealing silicone is drawn between the panels. Thus, shadow formation between the glass panels is prevented. Any selected glass panel can be turned into a hidden wing when desired (without knowing which one opens from the outside). Component silicone and silicone-compatible sealing tape are used between the glass and aluminum panel, and between the two glasses in double glazing.

Heat Barrier Structural Silicone Facade System

The structural silicone facade system with heat barrier is designed with heat barrier and multi-chamber against high thermal insulation and condensation risks. When looking at the system from the outside, the panels are surrounded by an aluminum frame and there is a 17 mm wide and 15 mm deep joint between them. Since the sealing between the panels is provided by double EPDM wicks, no sealing silicone is drawn between the glasses, so there is no shadow between the glasses. If desired, any glass panel (which is open from the outside is not clear in any way) can be transformed into a hidden opening wing system.

When looking at the panel facade system from the front, there is no aluminum between the windows, and there is a 17 mm wide and 15 mm deep joint gap. The system is designed with heat barrier and multiple chambers to provide high thermal insulation and against condensation risks. Although this system has the same features as other panel systems, its main difference from other panel systems is that the profile system appears 84 mm wide when viewed from the inside. The naming of the systems is usually done according to the width of the profiles. The sealing between the glass panels is provided by two EPDM wicks and no sealing silicone is drawn between the glasses, so there is no shadow between the glasses.

The panels are made into ready-to-install units, including the glasses, in the factory environment, shipped to the construction site and hung on the anchors that have all been adjusted beforehand, and the assembly is completed by making millimetric fine adjustments of the panels. The panels are one storey high and one horizontal axis wide.

In this system, if desired, hidden wings opening inside can be created by making multi-axis super panels from glass panels vertically and horizontally. Expansion is provided by the expansion gaps between the panels, both vertically and horizontally. The condensation water that may occur on each floor in the system is discharged from inside the floor. Composite panels inside the façade are mounted on the panel like glass and brought to the construction site ready for assembly. The thermal insulation applied to the back of the spandrel glass is applied to the back of the composite panel in the same way. Special silicone is used between the glass and the panel, and a component silicone and silicone compatible spacer tape is used between the two glasses in double glass. Silicon withdrawal processes are carried out under the control of processes, within the framework of quality control test procedures of system companies.

The main structure carrying the glasses in the transparent façade system consists of aesthetic steel constructions suitable for the purpose of use of the building.

In this system, the glasses are transported with stainless steel elements attached to the steel structure, and ultraviolet resistant silicone is applied to the horizontal and vertical joints between the glasses for sealing. In this system, there is no carrier that continues along the front and back of the windows, and there are handles with a width of 100 mm and a height of 70 mm, located at a distance of ~1/6 from the corners of the glass horizontally. In this system, the windows are not pierced and the handles come out of the joint.

In the facade system, vertically thick tempered glass plates are used as the rear carrier system. These glass plates can be safely applied up to a height of 12 m by combining them vertically with stainless steel blades. Without the need for any carrier in the horizontal, the deflection of the glass pillars is taken with the glasses in the main structure. The façade glasses drilled from all four sides are mechanically connected to the rear glass carriers by means of stainless ball joints.

In this transparent facade system, the glasses can be used as laminated single glass or laminated double glass.

In the transparent façade system, there are also tensile tension systems that complement the curtain wall systems, which give the feeling of a completely permeable and fluid space, and carry completely glass surfaces. Thus, there is no need for the use of secondary aluminum elements, which have been frequently used up to now, and the problems that may arise due to breakage are eliminated.

Steel construction

Insulating glass or laminated single glasses, which are attached by drilling from four sides by means of special stainless ball joints, are mechanically connected to the carrier steel construction. In this system, the main carriers can be made with various alternatives in the form of normal steel or stainless steel in line with architectural requests. Ultraviolet resistant silicones are used for sealing vertical and horizontal joints.

Steel Tension System

Steel tensioned system is a curtain wall system that gives the building a different architectural movement and aesthetic appearance. The biggest feature of this system is the use of glass, stainless steel, tension elements and specially designed stainless steel handles as facade cladding material. In this facade system, high-strength steel tension systems suitable for architectural aesthetics are used as the rear carrier construction and the facade is carried to this construction. It provides sealing with ultraviolet resistant silicone in horizontal and vertical glass joints in the system.

Facade Fasteners

While designing the façade fasteners, it is aimed to achieve two main objectives. A fastening that will not damage the glass and allows expansion and compression not only caused by wind, but also by natural vibrations of the ground, micro-vibrations of underground transportation channels, land and air vehicles, providing excellent control and security for all-glass, permeable facades, curtain walls and other types of facades. system is intended to be implemented.

It is also aimed to create a fixation system that perfectly adapts to the environment without losing the sense of beauty and uniqueness with the glass it works with.

Stainless steel was chosen as the most suitable material for facade fasteners. This type of steel has optimal mechanical properties for knuckle cross applications. Meticulous studies have shown that the joint geometry, designed in rhombus form, does not get stuck in the glass as in other connection joints, thus allowing sideways and upward movement, preventing the formation of stress concentration in the vertical direction. While these movements are allowed, the integrity of the system can be absolutely protected.

Insulated Glass Facade Systems Resistant to High Temperature Slices (-50ºC / +50ºC)

Thermal insulation against heat or cold in glass facade systems is no longer a problem. The most suitable solutions are applied in glass facade cladding systems that provide excellent insulation against – 50ºC cold or +50ºC heat.

Facade fasteners in insulation against the cold provide excellent insulation both because of the use of double glazing and because there is no metal conductor to transmit the cold outside by being mounted on the inner part of the double glazing. Such solutions are successfully applied against -50ºC cold.

In isolation against heat, different systems are used for glasses with special reflective coating. These systems can also be applied to double glazing as a second solution. The outer glass is covered with a reflector, reflecting the sun’s rays back, and also, the heat emission is greatly reduced due to the space between the double glazing. Thus, a perfect natural insulation against +50ºC heat is provided.

Security Solutions

Security problems in architecture are becoming increasingly important and force manufacturers to find new solutions. Various attacks such as terrorist acts, robberies, as well as accidents or explosions that may occur inside or outside the building expose the safety of life and property to irreparable dangers. Most of the casualties, injuries and damage are caused by the scattering of glass shards.

On the other hand, earthquake resistance is also a very serious risk factor. Finding solutions to all these problems to the extent that the current technology allows will not only ensure the safety of life and property, but also reduce the costs by reducing the insurance expenses and will reduce the cost of the investments made in a short time.

It is applied without any problems with systems and fasteners that provide a high level of excellent safety, such as triple glasses or poly-carbon, which are almost bulletproof.

Earthquake Resistance Solutions

By examining each project separately, unique earthquake resistance solutions are produced. There are high rotation angle construction systems in which glass plates are mounted. This application eliminates the pressure on the glass due to vibration to a great extent and thus prevents breakage. These solutions have been reached as a result of research and development studies made specifically for earthquake resistance. There are companies working on this issue and producing solutions.

In system analysis, rain water is provided to flow without encountering obstacles by using a cover on the vertical and silicone joint on the horizontal. Insulation is provided by applying transparent silicone to the gaps in the horizontal joints. There are condensation channels in both rafter and purlin profiles and any condensation water that may occur is discharged out in a controlled manner through these channels. The rafters and purlins are mounted on the steel sub-construction. In addition, the desired panels can be made in the form of “Skyvent” with an electric motor, which is specially designed for smoke or natural ventilation. Skyvents can be operated manually or with smoke sensors.

The skylight system is designed horizontally and vertically without cover. Air and water insulation is provided with neutral transparent silicone in the joint gaps on the horizontal and vertical axes.

There are condensation discharge channels in both rafter and purlin profiles, and any condensate that may occur is discharged out in a controlled manner through these channels. Since the rafter and purlin profiles are designed in the form of a high-strength box, they can be used in four-meter spans without the need for steel construction. In addition, “Skyvents” specially designed for smoke or natural ventilation can be used on desired panels.

Composite panel facade systems are divided into four according to coating materials.

Composite panel

It is the covering of deaf facades with the system’s own construction after applying heat insulation on the wall. Carrier aluminum profiles are fixed to the structure with special alloy aluminum anchor elements. In this system, the composite panels are mounted on the main carrier with specially adjusted clips vertically, so that the expansion of the composite panel is provided both horizontally and vertically, and deformations on the panels due to thermal expansion are prevented.

Aluminum Composite Panel

Aluminum composite panel is a coating material that consists of polyurethane on both surfaces (0.5mm) between the aluminum cladding plate (3mm), offers aesthetic appearance and more than 30 color options in interior and exterior architecture, and is protected by a painted surface and protective (removable) foil.

Aluminum composite panel; It does not deform, does not absorb water, does not freeze, does not change color, does not burn, is easy to lay, colored with natural pigments. It was baked at 1200-4000 °C.

Terra Cotta

Terra Cotta facade cladding products, which are produced entirely from clay and natural materials, enable multi-choice architectural designs on building facades with their production and rich colors and patterns. Terra Cotta Facade cladding products, produced with high technology, are resistant to freezing and atmospheric effects and are completely recyclable. In the horizontal joints, the gaps of 12 mm between the panels allow a natural air circulation to occur behind the façade.

Granite & Ceramic Coating

After the heat insulation of the walls is provided on the deaf façades of the existing building, the sub-carrier of this system is applied together with the aluminum construction. Carrier profiles are fixed to the structure with special alloy aluminum anchor elements. In this system, the preferred ceramic or granite modules are connected to the aluminum sub-carrier construction as a clip or channel system.

Joinery systems are generally named according to the profile depth. Aluminum elements used in horizontal and vertical joinery axes are in a way to meet all kinds of architectural demands. The isolation between the wing and frame profiles is provided by EPDM wicks. Since the profiles used in the system are wide and thick-sectioned, they can be used safely on door wings with dimensions of 900×2400 mm.

The front and rear profile groups of the joinery system are separated from each other by heat bridge profiles (polyamide) specially designed for this joinery system, and joinery with high insulation properties is formed. Aluminum elements used in horizontal and vertical joinery axes are in a way to meet architectural demands. In the joinery system, if desired, the wings can also be designed as double opening in vertical and horizontal planes.

The elevations of the building where the curtain wall will be constructed are taken from the project. However, all the elevations of the building, whose skeleton has been completed, are usually taken on a level or “total station” depending on the size of the project.

With the state-of-the-art total stations, even the photographs of each breaking point are taken and the elevations are determined. The total station is installed opposite the façade, detecting the elevations of all the breaking points of the building, taking pictures of each corner and recording them in the computer environment. The determined elevations are transferred to the computer and the three-dimensional project of the building is drawn.

Solid modeling of the building, whose project is drawn, is suitable for the system to be used in the curtain wall. One or more alternative projects are prepared. More than one curtain wall system can be used on the facade of the building. Often more than one system is used.

Cost         : The initial investment cost is important for facade cladding.
Aesthetics : Ambitious architectural appearance, realization of visual expectations, concept, design
Performance : Climatic comfort, energy saving, daylight saving, ventilation, condensation control, acoustic-soundproofing
Engineering : Making wind load and earthquake load calculations
Quality Control: Supervising that the details are resolved as envisaged during the assembly
Durability : Preservation of the features of the facade throughout the life of the building

Facade cladding accounts for 30 to 40 percent of the total rough construction costs of buildings. We can say that about 20% of the total construction costs are composed of facade cladding.

There are many important issues that need to be considered in the design, production and application stages of Curtain Walls.

First of all, it is necessary to be very meticulous during the preparation of the curtain wall project of any building. All details for each project should be prepared separately for the building. Healthy decisions should be made according to the region and climatic conditions, height and purpose of use of the building, and material selection should be made in this direction. Wrong decisions to be made can cause very difficult, expensive and even impossible damage to buildings in the future. For this reason, heat, light, energy control, sound, fire, waterproofing and glass selection are very important.

As the height of the building increases, the static and mechanical problems of the building increase proportionally. For this reason, in the design of high-rise buildings, all details should be prepared specifically for the building. In high-rise buildings, a sample with a minimum width of one axle and a minimum height of two floors should be made and the suitability of the system should be tested by testing in international standards. Tests such as resistance to pressure, bending under pressure, air tightness, water permeability under pressure, water permeability under wind, permeability of gaskets under the influence of membrane, anchor deformation under high expansion, impermeability of building connection details and determination of burst pressure should be performed on the sample. These tests applied on the sample should be repeated two or three times to find the average values ​​and accordingly the decisions for the details and the system should be reviewed. The effect of the facade on natural weather conditions in high-rise buildings is much different than in small-scale structures. As altitude increases, rainwater, for example, can pressurize the system’s details in all directions. This makes sealing difficult, special precautions may be required and may require special insulating elements and gaskets. Construction movements affect all nodal points, requiring sealed and movable joints. In general, the points to be considered in the preparation and implementation of the curtain wall project of a building:

Determining the System Section
Installation of the Facade Frame
Hanging the Curtain Wall System on the Building
Selection of Facade Glasses
Providing Building Insulation
Determining the System Section

After the implementing company decides on the facade cladding system to be applied in any project together with the user, it is necessary to make the cross-sections and static calculations of the system parts. These investigations, which will be made depending on the weight of the facade, the wind load and the height of the building, and even the floor height, will form the main factors related to the stability of the curtain wall. Anchor spacing in the vertical direction is one of the most important factors in determining the cross section of the carrier system.

Installation of the Facade Frame

In order to provide vertical water flow, the façade frame must have condensate channels. The material and surface coating certificates and test reports of the aluminum profiles to be used must be submitted. The sections of the profiles to be used according to the characteristics of the projects such as floor height, axle spacing, wind load, and climatic conditions should be selected as a result of the static calculations to be made. Profiles should be anodized minimum 10-15 microns or electrostatic powder painted with 60-70 micron thickness. The profiles to be used must be manufactured in accordance with AA6063 alloy TS 1164, TS 4922, TS 4925 and TS 5247 norms. The cassettes that will form the facade panels must be heat insulated. Insulated profiles both provide thermal insulation and do not cause noise pollution indoors, as they cut the contact of the profiles with each other in windy weather. All wicks to be used must be EPDM and 63 SHORE A hardness. Wicks should be resistant to sunlight (ultraviolet rays) and not lose their elasticity in extreme thermal changes. Horizontal expansion should also be considered in horizontal/vertical profile combinations. In vertical profiles, approximately 1 cm dilatation joints should be left every 6-6.5 meters according to the profile length.

Hanging the Curtain Wall System on the Building

The frame of the curtain wall system is fixed to the building with the help of anchors. Anchors should be dimensioned depending on the verticality of the building, and investigations should be made regarding their ability to carry the required vertical and horizontal loads. Anchors must be made of steel plate and galvanized by hot-dip method. Before galvanizing, the surface should be galvanized after it has been cleared of welding burrs in order to prevent pilling. The anchor must be fixed to the carrier system of the building with electro galvanized steel dowels. Vertical profiles should be connected to the anchors with stainless steel studs. Precautions must be taken against pilling by cutting steel/aluminum contact with special washers. Anchor mounting should be designed as fixed and sliding to allow thermal expansion of vertical profiles. Dilatation piece manufactured to allow thermal expansions should be used in dilatations. In order to ensure water impermeability in the system, the side parts must be original.

Selection of Facade Glasses

The glasses to be used on the facade are generally determined according to the purpose of the project (hotel, restaurant, business or cultural center). However, usually the outer glass is reflective tempered, the inner glass is a combination of transparent heat glass. The glasses are tempered horizontally and usually have machine-ground edges.

Providing Building Insulation

Ensuring the insulation of the building, meeting all kinds of water, sound and heat insulation needs, providing building comfort in any climate. For this, a complete impermeability must be ensured and tested at the beginning, end and side turns of the building, transitions between floors and dilatations.

Sound insulation can be provided in windows and between floors. The reinforced concrete system provides convenience in detailing fire and sound control systems between floors. In order to prevent the passage of sound and fire between floors at the level of the floor, this problem is eliminated with fire and steam suppression under the floor, screed sheet above the floor, and sound suppression material between the two materials. Norton tape should be used behind the profile/fire breaker in order to prevent the passage of smoke and toxic gases. Fire breakers must be designed to allow movement of the facade strictly. Galvanized sheet concrete/profile combinations should be isolated using appropriate insulation details.

According to the project, a screed sheet should be used by using 2mm galvanized sheet between the façade and the floor where necessary and nailed to the floor with special nails. The intersection areas of the floor and screed sheet should be insulated with mastic. The screed sheet should be designed to be independent of the movement of the facade.

At the corners where the facade profiles meet with the building, at the parapets, at the points where they meet with the ground, water insulation should be made with a special PVC waterstop membrane, the membrane should be adhered to the building facade, and then the galvanized steel lath should be fixed on the membrane. The joint surface of the lath and the wall should be filled with special mastic. According to the project, a glass or rock wool heat barrier with a minimum thickness of 5 cm and a density of 50 kg/m3 should be built behind the membrane.

1-Design and Engineering

The first phase is the design and engineering phase. At this stage, the design is decided. In a sense, the design phase also means determining the performance requirements. While the minimum requirements for some performance criteria arise naturally depending on the location of the building, some performance criteria will also be shaped in line with expectations and requests. If necessary, project-specific solutions are developed. A project is prepared that will meet the architectural and functional requirements and meet all of the special demands and mandatory standards in terms of static and performance.


As mentioned above, curtain walls are expected to meet the project-specific requirements as well as meeting the minimum requirements required by the standards. The suitability of all these performance criteria is also tested through tests.

The European standard for curtain wall product standard EN 13830 is the current standard. It is also in force in our country as TS EN 13830 and must be complied with. Curtains may be required to comply with more stringent performance criteria, provided that they comply with EN 13830. There may be special requests in this regard, as well as standards such as CWCT, ASTM and AAMA.

CWCT: Center for Window and Cladding Technology
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials International
AAMA: American Architectural Manufacturers Association

The CWCT standards were originally born with the intention of testing building envelopes in the UK.
ASTM and AAMA standards were originally developed to be implemented in the USA. However, other countries have adopted these detailed standards to a greater or lesser extent.

In 2005, the CWCT standard was regulated to cover the requirements in the European Norm EN 13830. Therefore, the CWCT requirements at least meet the EN 13830 criteria and are even more stringent with some requirements.

The differences between CWCT and ASTM&AAMA are so many that they are the subject of a separate article. We can say that CWCT tests are arduous. However, in the American standard, we can say that there is a non-mandatory seismic test in CWCT.

According to the EN 13830 Curtain Wall Product Standard, the test stages are air permeability, water tightness, resistance to wind load according to the design (design) load values, and then air permeability and water tightness tests to ensure that the facade exposed to the design load in the wind load test does not show any permanent change. It is in the form of repetition and examination of the ability to repeat the first values ​​​​provided. If the customer wishes, water tightness test can also be performed under the effect of dynamic wind pressure according to EN 13050 standard.

Other criteria we want curtain walls to fulfill and the tests that can be done accordingly: Water tightness under dynamic pressure, hose test, static seismic movement test, impact test, thermal permeability, discharge of water that will occur as a result of condensation (condensation), acoustic (soundproofing), fire resistance test etc. can be counted as The tests may be laboratory and field tests depending on the location.

Institutions where curtain wall tests can be made in Turkey:
FTI – Facade Testing Institute


In preparation…


In preparation…



All positive fasteners used to connect two separate elements in buildings are called anchor systems. Depending on the type of coating material to be used, the attachment system to the surface and the shape and size of the anchors vary according to the system).

Anchorages are produced in different shapes, sizes and lengths according to the project’s condition (according to the load to be carried, the recesses and protrusions on the building surface, the different shapes desired on the building facade, and certain necessity conditions).

Anchor sizes of each building may be different. After the anchors are manufactured, their surfaces are galvanized to provide protection against corrosion. It is divided into types such as those used in corners, corner anchors, those used in one-way, those used in flooring, those used at the top.

According to the project, material orders are placed for the systems. According to the details given in the project, anchors are fixed to attach the profiles to the building facade.

Installation of Anchors

Anchors are attached to the building floor surfaces or to the parapet surfaces, if any, on reinforced concrete surfaces.

The locations of the anchors are determined according to the project. Anchor system is available in two different forms from stainless steel sheet and bar (Steel bar anchorage system is used in stone coating system.).
Horizontal and vertical axes suitable for the project are determined by pulling a rope on the mounting surface. The coating is completed by checking the façade surface in accordance with the ropes that determine the horizontal and vertical axes with water balances and laser level plume.
Depending on the dimensions in the application project, the profile fasteners (anchors) are mounted on the reinforced concrete surface with the help of steel dowels.

The anchorages are determined by pulling the rope vertically and horizontally and with the help of the level. Steel dowels are manufactured as stainless steel and galvanized and are used for mounting anchor systems on reinforced concrete surfaces.

Vertical profiles are mounted on the anchors by using M12 bolt-washer-nut set from their sides.

Installation of Vertical Profiles

After the elevation control of the anchors, the vertical profiles are mounted. The vertical profiles, which are cut to the appropriate length and size in the workshops and the horizontal profiles are prepared, are mounted on the anchors with steel screws.

Installation of Horizontal Profiles

After the installation of the vertical profiles is completed, the horizontal intermediate profiles are mounted in their previously prepared places on the vertical profiles.

According to the characteristics of the system, rock wool, glass wool, polystyrene foams etc. can be used as insulation material between the profiles. is placed.

Sealing Material Types

The sealing material is black, permanently elastic. It is made of polymer as filling and sealing material. It is resistant to UV rays and weather conditions. Its fluidity is adjusted according to the desired sealing points. It can be used for sealing PVC parts. 310 ml. has content. Sold with cartridge and plastic mouth piece.

Applicable climatic temperature range = – 40°C – + 80 0C
Temperature range at the time of application = + 5 0C – + 40 0C

Adhesive and sealing material based on butyl rubber, black, permanently elastic. It is used for bonding the joints of EPDM roving parts. Sold with cartridge and plastic mouth piece.

The temperature range at the time of application = + 0 °C should be above.
Applicable climatic temperature range = -30°C to + 90°C
EPDM insulation tape adhesive;
For the preparation of dust and oil-free surfaces,
It is used for sticking insulation tapes one under the other.

It has 550 ml content. There are 20 foil pipes in a pack. It is applied with a special hand gun.

Temperature range at application = + 5°C – + 40°C
Applicable climatic temperature range = – 40 °C – + 90 °C

EPDM insulation tape contact adhesive is used for the preparation of perforated walls. The temperature range at the time of application should be above 5 °C.

Installation of Sealing Elements

Installation of Sealing Wicks

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