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Construction Chemicals - Complementary and Consumables

Construction chemicals, complementary materials and consumables are known as auxiliary materials used in construction and building construction.

One of the industries in which construction chemicals are actively used and which is the backbone of the economy in our country is the construction sector. Construction chemicals appear in many different areas of the construction industry. These chemicals are divided into various subheadings, from additives to flooring chemicals, sealants, mortars, waterproofing chemicals, and chemicals for repair and maintenance of structures. Membranes, silicones, sealants, foams, tapes, foils, adhesives, hardware products (hand tools (electrical, mechanical, etc.), equipment (transport, protection) etc.), welding derivatives, cutters-drills-abrasives, hardware as complementary and consumable materials (screws, bolts, nuts, dowels, rivets, etc.), various door and window elements (hinge, arm, espagnolette, lock, closer, automatic closers, panic bars, etc.).

The history of construction chemicals, in a sense, is also the history of the construction industry. The history of the construction industry dates back to the early days of civilization, and the pursuit of comfortable living has grown rapidly from civilization to civilization over thousands of years. This process, which started with stone, hair, timber and lime, now continues with modern concrete structures.

The history of the construction industry over the past 200 years has been heavily influenced by technological advances that began with the Industrial Revolution and the explosive growth of the global population. The creation of modern factories as a result of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century triggered the first important developments in the construction sector. In addition, with the developments in metalworking at the beginning of the 19th century, the work that had to be done by hand decreased and the completion rate of the buildings increased rapidly. These two important milestones determine the fate of the construction industry.

Construction chemicals increase the cost of any construction project by 2-5%, but the benefits are manifold. Some chemical products help minimize the amount of cement and water used in construction. These compounds impart physical and chemical properties in applications such as crosslinking or phase change from liquid to solid. Construction chemicals are essential to promote high quality concrete and improvement of concrete performance. They also extend the life of construction works and provide additional protection from environmental hazards. Based on their end-use applications, these compounds can be broadly classified into five categories.

Concrete Additive Construction Chemicals
Waterproofing Chemicals
Flooring Compounds
Repair and Rehabilitation Products
Construction Chemicals for Other Uses

Concrete Admixture Construction Chemical

Concrete additives are water-soluble chemicals added to concrete in small amounts to change some properties. It helps to reduce the construction cost and changes the properties of the hardened concrete. Additives are added while the concrete mix is ​​being prepared or just before pouring. Concrete additives have been developed to improve concrete quality, manageability, acceleration or delay time. Many concrete mixes today increase productivity and help reduce the costs of your pouring process. The cost of these additives varies depending on the amount and type of additives used. The main uses of concrete additive construction chemicals are as follows:

Reducing the cost of concrete construction
Changing the properties of hardened concrete
Ensuring the quality of concrete during mixing, transport, placing and curing

Concrete additive construction chemicals assist in the production of high-strength, long-lasting concrete used in complex architectural designs. It allows the concrete to flow, thus increasing the application time and ease of use and preventing the separation of the concrete components. The successful use of such additives depends on the use of appropriate dosing and concreting methods.

Waterproofing Construction Chemicals

Waterproofing coating chemicals are suitable construction chemicals to provide waterproofing of terraces, roofs, toilets, water tanks, basements of swimming pools. It is used as a repair mortar in the repair of concrete and masonry works, and to protect the concrete against corrosion and salt attacks. It is also used as an additive for cement paints, to improve waterproofing properties and increase durability. Correctly used waterproofing chemicals, when mixed with cement, make the area they are applied watertight. They protect these surfaces against UV rays. They help in reducing fungal and micro-organism attacks. They reduce corrosion. The tuff coating can also be used for applications involving constant contact with water. Considering all these features, it is possible to understand how waterproofing chemicals come to the fore in many areas of the construction industry.

It is suitable for a variety of end-use water applications with products such as polypropylene cementitious composites, elastomeric polyurethane, waterproof concrete, expanded polyethylene, polysulfide sealants, polyurethane systems, water repellants and depending on the need for the structure or with products such as butyl and acrylic sealants.

Waterproof compounds can be used in liquid, solid, slurry and two-component processes, i.e. by dipping or spraying or low pressure spraying on surface coating forms. These products can be urethane-based, modified asphalts, clay-based or rubber polymers. Waterproofing components are designed to prevent water penetration. These compounds or membranes can be extremely effective when applied outside of a foundation system. Getting the support of an expert on what is the best waterproofing construction chemicals and how to apply it will always give the right result.

Flooring Compounds

Construction chemicals can be used in every area from the ceiling to the floor in the construction of a building. This includes flooring compounds. Floor covering is an important component of the house as it increases the warmth and attractiveness of the house. Various floor materials are placed using flooring adhesives. Flooring compounds also include tile grouts used to fill tile seams and provide a finishing appearance. In short, flooring compounds are one of the materials with the widest usage area among construction chemicals. Flooring compounds commonly used in construction today are mostly epoxy and polyurethane based. Industrial flooring compounds are used to meet a variety of industrial needs such as abrasion, load impact, chemical attack, moisture penetration, reinforcing damaged floors and improving the aesthetic appeal of floors. They are also used to provide certain outstanding properties such as slip resistance, static resistance, fire resistance, antibacterial properties.

Construction Chemicals Used for the Repair and Rehabilitation of the Building

Various chemicals are also available for the repair and rehabilitation of structures. Additives, binders, anti-corrosion coatings, primers and mortars are included under this building material heading. The selection of materials among the construction chemicals suitable for repair is the most important factor. These substances help in the durable and reliable repair of a concrete structure. The materials used for concrete repair should be of the non-shrinking type in particular. They should also be compatible with the base material for long-term use and a smooth appearance. In addition to harmonious properties, materials for repairing the concrete structure must also be easy to apply. In this way, it does not require attention after the repair is made.

Retrofitting is basically adding new technologies or features to old systems and improving energy efficient structures. Rehabilitation is the rebuilding of damaged building components. These products include cementitious repair mortars, concrete floor repair systems, polyester and epoxy based resin mortars, moisture insensitive epoxies, structural additives, synthetic adhesives, rust removers and corrosion inhibitors. The main rehabilitation methods are concrete coating, steel jacketing and FRP coating. Old and historical buildings can be renovated using such methods. During the renovation processes, the question of what are construction chemicals comes to the fore.

One of the most important substances among construction chemicals is the formulas used to prevent leaks. Sealants are substances used to seal a surface or opening to prevent the passage of a liquid or gas. They are often used to seal small openings that are difficult to glue, with materials such as concrete and drywall. sealants; They prevent external factors such as humidity, oxygen, dust particles from entering indoor spaces. Sealants can be weak or strong, flexible or rigid, permanent or temporary. Although sealants are not adhesive, some have adhesive qualities. For this reason, they are also called adhesive sealant or structural sealant.

Sealants are used to seal expansion joints, cracks, joints in concrete roads and to fill the gaps between concrete. There are four types of sealants. These are polysulfide sealants, polyurethane sealants, silicone sealants and acrylic sealants. Let’s examine them more closely to find an answer to the question of what are construction chemicals in the sealant category.

Polysulfide sealants: These products are most commonly used in construction: They are common in the industrial sector as expansion joints for concrete roads, structural joints and others.

Polyurethane sealing materials: These are used for high quality applications at high places. Flexibility and bonding strength are required.

Silicone sealants: These are generally used where good adhesion is required: They can be used between two different surfaces, such as fixing glass to a metal frame.

Acrylic sealants: These are generally used for crack or gap filling and today for applications such as window and door gap sealing.

Protective Coatings and Resins

Protective coatings include high performance waterproof coatings and epoxy resins. These are paints or coatings that put more emphasis on protective rather than aesthetic properties. They provide excellent adhesion, sealing and dust binding properties. The most common use of industrial coatings is for corrosion control of steel or concrete.


Joints are compounds used to provide extra strength for the foundations of load-bearing structures. They are also used for repairing and sealing cracks and cavities. Grouts have different chemicals depending on the applications as discussed below:

Epoxy-based liquid grouting compounds are injected into walls mainly to fill hairline cracks and voids, thus increasing the rigidity of the structure. Cementitious mortars are used to add extra strength to machine foundations, base plates or anchor bolts for machinery or equipment and others. They are also used in the repair of building structures and in heavy industries such as steel, power plants and ports. There are also polyester-based joints used for anchoring to strengthen foundations that need to be reached in limited usable space. Mortars can also be made to have special properties such as fast setting, free flow, shrinkage and others by adding different additives according to the needs of the end user.


That; It is considered to be one of the most basic forms of life at the universal level. Water, which is one of the indispensable elements, can create devastating results in some special cases. This should be considered especially for waterproofing systems in the construction sector. It is necessary to keep the buildings away from the possible effects of both humidity and water. Otherwise, buildings are unfortunately exposed to the negative effects of water and humidity. This will have serious consequences in terms of construction costs. The longevity of buildings largely depends on this.

Membrane is a kind of insulation material that prevents the passage of water to the upper or lower parts of the surfaces that are in permanent contact with water. As it is known, materials such as steel blocks, wires or concrete must survive for many years. The membrane plays an important role in the preservation of these materials. It is possible to talk about different models depending on both the nature and the type of building. Depending on your needs, expectations and, of course, your budget, you can choose the most ideal membrane type. Depending on the price, changes are observed in the durability level, thickness or other technical features of the products.

Membrane is largely a preferred material form in insulation applications. As will be admitted, insulation has started to play a very important role in building formations as of today. Recently, membrane applications are now accepted as a necessity. Especially the tangible effects of the creature have made this material almost indispensable. In a sense, the membrane is the cornerstone and essence of insulation. Membrane, which is almost one of the secrets of long-lasting buildings, is an application that should not be overlooked. This special material is successfully applied in heat and waterproofing processes. Thanks to its use in thermal insulation, it protects the building from the cold in the winter and the heat in the summer. At the same time, we can see the membranes used in the industrial industry inside the expansion tanks.

Pay Attention to These in Membrane Selection

Membrane is among the most used materials in the construction industry. The fact that it is useful, economically attractive and gives successful results are among the factors that make it attractive. Depending on the technological developments, differences occur in membrane application types or materials.

When you want to buy a membrane, there are some criteria that you should definitely pay attention to. In this way, you can more easily turn to the membrane types you need and solve your building’s insulation-oriented problems in the long term. If you wish, you can benefit from people who are technically experienced in membranes in this sense. For membrane applications, the following should be considered:

Delivery time,
thickness type,
equipment type,
For which climate type it will be used,
Temperature resistance properties,
Ability to bend in cold weather,
Resistance to conditions such as fire

Membrane applications are widely used in exterior walls, roofs, pools, expansion tanks.

It is one of the most durable insulation materials available today, consisting of the initials of Ethylene Propylene Dien Monomer .

The chemical composition and curing of EPDM (high proportion of carbon black and saturated carbon chains) means that the EPDM membrane provides unmatched resistance to UV, heat, ozone, microorganisms and extreme weather conditions. Projects established 40 years ago are still functional and therefore a living proof of this durability.

EPDM membrane coating has a wide range of applications. EPDM membranes are WRAS / WRC approved, that is, they are approved for use in drinking water areas.

EPDM Membrane Technical Specifications:

EPDM is extremely durable offering excellent resistance to ozone, UV radiation, aging and chemical corrosion and is one of the most popular rubber products for use in outdoor applications, as it has exceptional resistance to weathering.

Epdm membrane has the unique ability to withstand mechanical stresses such as pressure and movements. This provides unique benefits as a membrane to be exposed to settlements and movements on the ground.

The EPDM membrane remains extremely flexible even at very low temperatures (down to -40°C) and allows for year-round installation in a variety of climates.

EPDM membrane is elastic and shows high resistance to root penetration regardless of age and temperature.

EPDM is not subject to stress cracking and does not have a yield point like thermoplastic materials. It ensures that your EPDM coatings can withstand indoor and outdoor environments without showing signs of deterioration.

EPDM rubber membrane is a good choice for the environment. The membrane does not contain any substances harmful to the environment and does not emit any chemicals or emissions during its lifetime.

EPDM Membrane Application

EPDM Geomembrane can be combined with the Thermobond splicing technique, which is a user-friendly and controllable splicing method; here the entire piecing is done with a hot wedge or a hot air gun.

Membranes are overlapped 4 cm from the edges and added to each other with Thermobond splicing technique to obtain areas in desired quantities.

What are the EPDM Membrane Technical Specifications:

Elasticity and durability – regardless of temperature, the membrane will perform well under maximum operating load. Versatile Stress – soil placement and movements are superior. Excellent resistance to temperatures from -40°C to +120°C.
Superior durability with a service life of more than 50 years.
Fully flexible puncture resistance up to maximum tensile stress.
It is unaffected by low temperatures and can be fully thermally stitched even in freezing conditions.
Optimal surface friction properties – soft-textured rubber surface provides high interface friction.
Excellent UV and ozone resistance – outstanding service life also in exposed plants.
High resistance to chemicals – The membrane provides chemical resistance in waste water pools.
Prefabricated large panels of dimensions determined according to site drawings. The result is reduced space sewing and short assembly times.
Thermobond stitching technique with hot wedge provides maximum installation control and quality.
It can be easily adhered to concrete, wood or metal surfaces and fixed using conventional methods.
Protrusions and pipes are easily fitted with prefabricated boots and hot air welding.
Long service life and even exposed parts damage can be easily repaired.
Can be used in drinking water tanks.

Where EPDM Membrane is Applied:

Ponds and agricultural irrigation ponds
waterproofing of construction foundations and roofs
ornamental pools
Leakage reserves at municipal landfills
biological ponds
Diversion and collection of surface water from residential areas
groundwater protection
roadside ditches
Liquid manure ponds for agriculture
Insulation of water channels and ditches
Covers for municipal landfills or dirty ground
Closed storage of industrial waste
Cover for biogas tanks

PVC-Polyvinyl chloride was accidentally observed twice in the XIX century, by Henri Victor Regnault in 1835 and by Eugen Baumann in 1872.

In both cases, a solid white polymer mass formed inside the vinyl chloride bottles exposed to sunlight. The most well-known abbreviation is actually PVC (PolyVinyl Chloride).

This thermoplastic polymer was first used for hoses in 1930 and there was a sudden industrial development after the Second World War.

PVC membranes were used in waterproof systems in the late 60s, first in hydraulic works, then in underground works and roofs. These two business areas have increased the use capacity of PVC membranes from their waterproof performance.

Technically, PVC is a molecule made up of carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine. The combination of these elements results in a single-ply membrane that is simple to manufacture.

During production, residues can be recycled and melted down for reuse, resulting in less waste.

Because PVC is a thermoplastic, this membrane can be softened in a semi-solid state and added with UV light inhibitors and anti-fungicides.

During application, multiple layers of membrane are overlapped and fused in a process known as weld seam technology.

After cooling at room temperature, bonded membranes cover the available space.

PVC waterproofing membrane is a modern waterproofing material made from high quality flexible (plasticized) polyvinylchloride.

Depending on the application area, reinforced or unreinforced membranes are produced.

Reinforced (reinforced) waterproofing membrane has a reinforcement base in the form of polyester mesh or fiberglass and is used for waterproofing roofs.

Reinforced membranes have greater durability. Unreinforced (unreinforced) membranes are more flexible, wear-resistant and are used for waterproofing underground structures, tunnels, swimming pools.

Manufacturers of PVC membranes offer various widths and lengths of the material. The width of the material is from 2 to 2.5 m, the rolls can be from 20 m. The thickness of the PVC membrane is between 1mm and 3mm.

PVC membrane is mainly used for waterproofing buildings and roofs. Since this material is quite easy to install, is strong enough (has a large tensile strength) and has a long service life, PVC membrane makes the insulation better than bituminous roofing materials, especially considering that these materials require constant maintenance and repair. Due to its PVC Membrane structure, it is a very strong and flexible material at the same time.

PVC Membrane Features:

It is root resistant.
It is recyclable. It can be used again.
It is heat resistant to -40, +70 degrees.
Joints are combined with double-channel sewing welding robots.
It prevents corrosion and is resistant to aging.
Its fire resistance is also in E class.
It is long lasting
It shows high resistance to mechanical impacts.
It has high tensile and elongation strength.
It shows flexibility in cold, does not crack, does not break.
They can be produced with Signal layer-UV resistant and Geotextile reinforcement upon request.
Joints are joined by fusion welding system.
Since it is applied with the free-laying technique, they are minimally affected by the vibrations that occur in the structures.
They can be produced in different colors and sizes.

The membrane is good for covering roof flat roofs. Thanks to the area of ​​​​use in such roofs, it is possible to organize a place for recreation and entertainment, they are covered with a carpet of vegetation. Here the membrane coating of the roof simply cannot be filled. PVC waterproofing membrane can serve for almost fifty years without losing its reliability and positive properties.

How to Apply PVC Membrane Waterproofing:

After the ground is prepared, geotextiles are laid. Then the roof is laid with foam polystyrene or rock wool.

Then you can start the application of the membrane coating. Special hot air welding machines and hand welding machines are used for waterproofing PVC membrane structures.

Welding is carried out with hot air using automatic equipment that optimizes temperature, speed and pressing force.

Welding is done with manual hand welding machines where it is not possible to use machines. The bonding technology of these two membranes ensures the reliability of the seam and the completely closed surface.

The average service life of the PVC membrane varies depending on the manufacturer and the quality of the assembly. Installation of PVC waterproofing is carried out in a single layer, which has a positive effect on the cost of work.

Another advantage of the PVC membrane is that the installation can be carried out in wet and cold weather. Alternatively, it can be bonded onto the membrane with adhesive compositions or with the ballast layer of the gravel.

PVC Membrane Application Areas:

building foundations,
Dams, transmission tunnels,
roofs and terraces,
parking lots,
Treatment plants,
Ponds for agricultural irrigation,
drinking water tanks,
Highway, railway tunnels,
Metro station and tunnels,
irrigation channels

Bituminous materials can be found in nature in solid or semi-solid form, but are mostly hydrocarbon materials obtained as a residual product as a result of the distillation of crude oil or as a by-product during the carbonization of hard coal. Hydrocarbons are simple or complex bodies consisting of a combination of carbon and hydrogen, and they constitute an important class in organic chemistry and contain the following elements in approximate proportions:

Carbon 70-85%
Hydrogen 7-12%
Nitrogen 0-1%
Sulfur 1-7%
Oxygen 0-5%
Metals in very small amounts (as oxides, salts or organic compounds containing metals)

In the 19th century, especially in France, the USA and England, rock asphalt began to be used in pavement and road coatings. With the discovery of asphalt production by refining from crude oil in the early 1900s, the increasing popularity of automobiles has led to the emergence of a rapidly developing industry. Asphalt is widely used in road construction, roofs and bridge decks as an insulating material and insulation cover, in industry, in battery construction and in many other areas.

Bitumen is the heavy petroleum component that remains after refining volatile and light fuels from crude oil. Bitumen obtained from distilled petroleum was initially used as an adhesive in road constructions. Because it melted at 50°C and broke at 0°C, preventing it from being used on building roofs. In a method that was tried later, high-temperature air was blown into the molten bitumen. With this method, a better thermal stability of the oxygen-modified bitumen was achieved. With the temperature range of this type, known as “oxidized” bitumen, from -5°C to + 70°C, the process of using bitumen for waterproofing purposes on building roofs has begun. Oxidized bitumen is the raw form of the bituminous covers we use on roofs.

Oxidized (airblown) asphalts are obtained by blowing air over the raw asphalt residues from distillation. As the C/H ratio of such asphalts increases as a result of the hydrogenation process, their ductility decreases, their penetration values ​​decrease, their softening points increase and they are less affected by temperature changes compared to the directly produced asphalts. Oxidized asphalts;

In roof insulation,
In waterproofing works,
In the protection of pipes against corrosion,
They are used in hydraulic construction and similar works.

In these periods, waterproofing; It was made by the method of gluing the oxidized bitumen, which is made fluid by heating in special containers with a temperature of up to 200-220 °C, in the application area, by applying it in layers between the carrier cardboard. Hot bitumen poured directly onto the area to be applied is spread on the surface with wide brushes. After this process, bituminous cardboard rolls were laid, and these processes were repeated several times, and 3-4 layered applications were carried out with bituminous cardboards. In the British method, the application was made by pouring hot bitumen just in front of the bituminous cardboard being laid. The result is a layered and continuous waterproofing membrane with a total thickness of 8-10 mm.

The bitumen industry quickly; It tends towards the bitumen classification, in which its performance is tested depending on its mechanical and rheological properties rather than its physical properties, in all temperature conditions it can be exposed to, including high, medium and low temperatures. In Turkey, on the other hand, the classification system based on the penetration test performed at a single temperature is still used. A classification system based on penetration value in the identification of bituminous binders gives very limited information about the behavior of the bitumen in question at temperatures other than 25°C, and gives no information about its behavior under load.

Due to these inadequacies of traditional classification systems, the performance-based SUPERPAVE (SUperior PERforming Asphalt PAVEments) binder classification system has been developed in the United States within the framework of the Strategic Highway Research Program. In the SUPERPAVE method, bitumen is classified according to their performance under temperature conditions. For this reason, this type of bitumen is called “Performance Grade-PG” bitumen. In the system, the properties expected from bitumen in the experiments for the identification of the binder are the same. However, the temperatures at which these properties are expected vary. That is, the physical properties remain constant in performance grade bitumen; however, the temperatures at which these properties will be obtained vary according to the climatic conditions of the place where the coating will be made. The numbers following the PG symbol indicate the average highest and average lowest coating temperatures where the binder will serve.

The properties expected from bitumen in the experiments carried out are the same. However, the temperatures at which these properties are expected vary. That is, the physical properties remain constant in performance grade bitumen; however, the temperatures at which these properties will be obtained vary according to the climatic conditions of the place where the coating will be made. For example, in bitumen called PG 64-22; Expected performance at 64°C and -22°C is expected at 46°C and -40°C for PG 46-40 bitumen. The numbers following the PG symbol refer to the highest and lowest coating temperatures where the binder will serve.

Even if the penetration and other physical properties of bitumen binders are similar, significant performance differences may occur depending on the origin and rheological structure of the bitumen. In addition, the behavior of bituminous binders, ie performance, can change significantly due to rapid aging during the production of the hot mix and slow aging during service conditions. This situation reveals the importance of aging and makes it necessary to examine the effect of rheological structure on aging behavior.

Aging of bitumen is a very complex process that results in bitumen hardening and becoming brittle under both application and service conditions. Aging has a very important effect on the deterioration of coatings, and the stability and colloidal structure of asphaltenes in the composition of bitumens is directly related to aging (5). Aging due to the change in the composition of the bitumen; The loss of oily compounds of bitumen by volatilization or by absorption by the porous aggregate takes place in the forms of molecular structuring that occurs with the change in chemical composition due to the reaction with atmospheric oxygen and thixotropic effects (physical hardening).

However, bituminous binders age mainly due to oxidation; The change that occurs with oxidation, on the other hand, can manifest itself in the form of faster and more hardening in some bitumen depending on the properties of the bitumen. Oxidation occurs in two stages. In the first stage, due to the high temperature the binder is exposed to during mixing-laying and the large surface area of ​​the heated aggregate, oxidation occurs rapidly, and the hardening of the bitumen occurs mostly when some volatile components are separated from the bitumen. In the second stage, oxidation occurs due to the fact that the coating is affected by the oxygen in the air over time throughout its service life and the binder reacts with this oxygen. This process is known as the main hardening process, in which oxidation takes place slowly and for a long time.

The bituminous binder in the coating; This change, which occurs over time as a result of oxidation under the influence of heat, air and environmental conditions during its service life, is called aging hardening. Bitumen that undergoes age hardening has lower penetration and higher viscosity. As a result, bituminous pavement layers may deteriorate because the bituminous binder hardens and becomes more brittle and its adhesion with the aggregate decreases.

The hardening of the bitumen during mixing and laying is represented in the laboratory by the rolling thin film heating test (Rolling Thin Film Oven Test, RTFOT). In this experiment, the bitumen film is continuously exposed to heat and air flow at a constant temperature of 163 °C for 85 minutes. The amount of mass evaporated at the end of this process is an indicator of the aging of the bitumen that may occur during the mixing and laying process.

Asphalt Emulsions:

Asphalt cements used in pavement works in road constructions are viscous and semi-solid at normal temperatures. In order for these asphalts to be used, they must be heated to a certain fluidity. Limited or no on-site heating facilities have created a demand for binders that can be used cold. As emulsion asphalts provide a solution to this problem, their importance is increasing day by day.

An emulsion is a heterogeneous mixture in which two liquids that do not mix well with each other are dispersed in one of the other as very small globules. Asphalt emulsions used in road construction are emulsions in which asphalt is “dispersed phase” and water is “continuous phase”.

Asphalt emulsions are classified into two groups according to their chemical structure:

Anionic emulsions
Cationic emulsions

Asphalt emulsions have the following advantages:

They are liquid at normal temperatures, do not require heating.
They can be used with cold and wet aggregates.
They can be applied to wet surfaces.
It does not have the fire hazards and toxic effects of katbek asphalt.
They are more economical compared to other liquid asphalt types.
They do not cause environmental pollution.

Asphalt emulsions have the following advantages:

They are liquid at normal temperatures, do not require heating.
They can be used with cold and wet aggregates.
They can be applied to wet surfaces.
It is desired that the fire hazard in Katbek asphalt should be low. In particular, flexible pavement pavements can fulfill the functions expected from them;

permanent deformations,
fatigue cracks,
low temperature cracks,
low durability

It should be ensured that major disruptions such as For this reason, in order to improve the properties of the bitumen and increase the performance of the binder and/or the mixture, the modifying additives are added either in the bitumen or in the mixture at certain rates and conditions.

Modified bitumen is mostly produced with polymers today. The polymers used for this purpose are classified as follows:

Elastomers (SBS, latex, etc.),
Plastomers (EVA, polyethylene etc.),
Thermosetting polymers (epoxy resins),
Polyurethane resins.

The uses of modified bitumen and mixtures are summarized below.

To obtain softer mixtures for low temperatures and to reduce cracks.
Obtaining harder mixtures for high temperatures and reducing rutting.
Reducing viscosity at building temperatures.
To improve machinability and compaction.
To increase the strength and stability of the mixture.
Improving the abrasion resistance of the mix and reducing aggregate breakage.
Reducing low temperature cracks of the coating.
To improve the fatigue strength of the mixture.
To improve the quality of marginal asphalt cements.
Rejuvenating aged asphalt binder.
To ensure the use of marginal aggregates.
Extending the life of the asphalt binder.
To create a thicker asphalt film on the aggregate.
To improve adhesion and reduce peeling of asphalt cement from the aggregate surface.
Reducing vomiting.
To provide improved crack filling.
To increase resistance against fuel spills.
To increase resistance against aging or oxidation.
Reducing the thickness of the coating layers.
Reducing the life-cycle cost of your coating.
Improving the overall performance of coatings

Physical and Mechanical Properties Expected from Bituminous Mixtures:

1 Stability

The term stability is closely related to the strength and is called the resistance it shows against the deformations that will occur in the coatings made of hot bituminous mixtures. In other words, the lower the stability of the hot bituminous mixture, the greater the deformation that may occur under traffic loads. However, the more undesirable the very low stability, the more harmful is the very high stability. Because bituminous mixtures with very high stability (very hard, rigid or brittle) do not show a flexible behavior when exposed to stresses and cause cracks in the coating.

2 Durability

The durability of a bituminous mixture is its resistance to the effects of traffic, water, weather and temperature changes. These effects:

Change of properties of asphalt (aging-hardening)
Breaking and crumbling of aggregate grains
Peeling of asphalt.

Endurance in general;

Increase in asphalt ratio
Hard asphalt (low penetration)
High peel resistance
good jam

increases with. If the above conditions are met, the impermeability will increase and less air and water will enter the mixture, thus increasing the durability.

3 Flexibility

The flexibility of hot bituminous mixes is the ability of the soil and foundation layer to adapt to these collapses in long-term settlement. Cracks are inevitable if there is a lack of flexibility. The factors affecting flexibility are as follows.

Fill rate
Sensitivity to temperature
Coating thickness

4 Machinability

Workability can be expressed as the ease of mixing and compaction of the mixture. Mixtures containing too much aggregate cannot be easily processed.

5 Fatigue Resistance

Fatigue resistance is resistance to repeated stresses under traffic loads. The percentage of voids in the mixture and the viscosity of the mixture are very effective on resistance to fatigue. As factors such as high void percentage in the mixture increase, this resistance decreases after aging and hardening.

Laying Membranes

Laying membranes are used in foundation and curtain insulation and applied in the form of bundling. The applicator heats the product with a torch flame and continues to apply the product by laying it on the surface, as in the name of the products. Generally, one meter wide paved membranes are applied by overlapping and gluing overlapping margins. Although the application made in this way seems easy, in case of a water leakage that may occur, the solution of the error will be more difficult. It is not known where the water entering under the paved membranes will come from, and therefore the process required for repair is very difficult.

Laying membranes are among the reasons for preference because they can be used both on the foundation and on the roof, and they are easy in terms of application. Laying membranes with polyester felt and glass fiber carrier can be used on foundations or roofs depending on the thickness and carrier type.

While polyester felt carrier membranes are used for foundation insulation, glass fiber carrier membranes, which are thinner and lighter than polyester felt carrier membranes, are generally used for roof insulation. In case of exposure to sunlight, bitumen-based laying membranes used on roofs may lose their waterproofing properties by losing their stable structure. For this reason, bitumen-based laying membranes used on roofs should be covered.

Sliding Membranes

Sliding waterproofing products can be applied more easily than laid membranes in terms of application. It does not require extra tools such as the torch flame used in the application of paved membranes. In addition, joint/overlap areas that occur in waterproofing applications using a laid membrane, which must be done every one meter and remain as a weak point in insulation, do not occur in the application of applied waterproofing products. Since these products are applied with a brush, roller or spray machine, they must be applied meticulously and in detail to ensure the required dry film thickness. It is necessary to wait for a certain period of time for the product applied to the surface to dry and for the second layer to be applied on the first layer. In case of an emerging waterproofing problem, the solution is much easier as it can be done locally compared to the laid membranes.

In bituminous systems, there are solvent-based and hybrid products as well as coating-based and water-based products. These products have advantages and disadvantages over water-based products. Since they are solvent and reaction resin class, they cure much faster than water-based products and shorten the waiting time between coats. However, in indoor applications, long-term exposure of the applicators to the solvent in the product causes serious health problems. In addition, the application of such products in construction site conditions is more difficult than water-based products. Because their tolerance against surface moisture or any foreign matter on the surface is much less than water-based products. At the same time, environmental regulations are increasingly restricting the use of solvent systems and turning to water-based systems.

The waterproofing tape, also known as the waterproofing tape, adheres tightly to the surface it is applied to, making the building waterproof. It creates a complete waterproofing system by being applied in application areas such as joints, as well as in places such as doors and windows that may have water and air inlet of buildings.

Waterproofing tapes; It is produced as bitumen or butyl based, cold applied, coated with aluminum foil or colored mineral on one side and adhesive on the other side. The protective cover on it is removed and adhered to the application surface and provides instant protection.

Waterproofing is of great importance in making the completed buildings ready to live. In the absence of waterproofing, water included in the structure of the building due to precipitation or any other reason; causes mold, rot and corrosion.

This leads to a decrease in the durability of buildings. Waterproofing tapes are among the most commonly used auxiliary waterproofing materials to increase the structural durability of buildings.

Waterproofing tapes can be produced based on bitumen and butyl. These materials have waterproofing properties due to the chemicals in their structure. They adhere tightly to the applied surface and prevent the ingress of water into buildings from these surfaces. Thus, buildings are protected from water leaks and a possible loss of performance is prevented.

The main purpose of use of waterproofing tapes is to provide protection against water by creating a barrier between the building and water. Waterproofing tapes; It is used to solve these flow problems at points where moisture and air flow in the building envelope such as doors, windows, nail holes.

It can also be used in roof systems to prevent leaks that may be caused by precipitation. In addition, waterproofing tape can be used in places such as bathrooms, kitchens, terraces, balconies and toilets where waterproofing is critical.

In addition, waterproofing can be provided with waterproofing tapes, which offer practical use in moving joints, pipe transitions, repairing cracks in pools and in such places where waterproofing is important.

Advantages of Using Waterproofing Kand

The waterproofing tape comes to the fore in terms of waterproofing with its advantages, as it offers a practical and urgent and long-lasting solution. So what are the advantages of using waterproofing tape?

Waterproofing tapes, which are among the materials used to prevent water from damaging the building structure, are widely preferred primarily because they offer an extremely good performance in terms of water infiltration, as well as their ease of use and simple application.

We have given the advantages of using waterproofing tape above, but there are also points to be considered when choosing a waterproofing tape. It is necessary to choose the right waterproofing tape in order to increase the waterproofing and indoor quality of the building.


Adhesive tapes are recommended to be used at room temperature (16 C-20 C). Since the tape surface will harden at lower temperatures, it may not fully penetrate the surface to which it is adhered.
Shelf life of double-sided tapes is 12-18 months, single-sided tapes have a shelf life of 6-8 months.
Tapes should be stocked horizontally against the direction of adhesive flow.
Since Adhesive Tapes are sensitive to pressure, putting pressure on the tape surface by hand during the application for ideal assembly ensures a healthier adhesion.
The adhered surface should first be wiped with an alcohol cloth, there should be no dirt or dust during adhesion.
One of the criteria in choosing a tape according to the surface is the choice according to the distance between the tape and the material.
If the distance is small, that is, if the surface is flat rather than rough (for example, the machined metal surface), the thinnest possible tape will increase the adhesion performance.
Prefer acrylic or modified acrylic adhesive, especially on rough surfaces.
As time passes, the acrylic adhesive will flow into the gaps on the surface, fill the gaps and provide a very strong adhesion.
Again, in cases where it is not possible to install at room temperature, choose products with modified acrylic adhesive for ideal adhesion.

Silicone or polysiloxane is a polymer composed of siloxane (R2Si−O−SiR2, where R=organic group). They are typically colorless, oil or rubber-like substances. Silicones are used in sealants, adhesives, lubricants, pharmaceuticals, cookware, and thermal and electrical insulation.

The following are the most commonly used sealant types in building construction:

Silicone (Silicone Sealant)
Acrylic (Acrylic Sealant)

EN ISO 11600 standard classifies sealants for building construction according to application. Each category is divided into classes depending on the mobility of the sealant.

Silicone is a product resistant to moisture, chemicals and external weather conditions. It has high adhesion strength. It stands out with its permanent flexibility. It maintains its flexibility at low and high temperatures. It can be used in places that will be directly exposed to water. Doesn’t pull. It is resistant to mold formation.

It can be used in general PVC, aluminum and wooden joinery, bathtubs, sinks, tiles and ceramics, sound, water and dust insulation of vehicles. General purpose silicone is preferred for general purpose uses such as doors, windows and glass joints.

Silicone Types

Standard Silicones: These silicones with the universal silicone phrase are the most commonly used silicones. It is used for filling, sealing, insulation and bonding works. It is especially used for sealing the edge of the shower cabin, bathtub, sink in the bathroom. It is also used in filling and bonding of glass joinery, metal, tile, pvc and building elements, in applications that require installation, roofing and guttering. It is resistant to weather conditions and, thanks to its flexibility, it can be used between the window and the frame instead of glass paste.

Neutral Exterior Silicone is a product developed for use in exterior sealing applications, especially for porous and non-porous surfaces.

Mirror Silicones: Also known as mirror adhesive. One of its most important features is that it dries from the inside out, not from the outside like other silicones. They do not damage the black glaze layer behind the mirrors. It can be used in mirror bonding, window, joinery combinations.

Heat Resistant Silicones: It is generally used in the production and repair of industrial machine parts and electrical household appliances that require high heat resistance, in the manufacture and repair of automobile spare parts, and in sealing and bonding works where high heat resistance is required. It has high elastic properties. It is frequently used in automotive as a liquid seal. It can be used for bonding, filling and insulation purposes.

Aquarium Silicones: Generally used in aquarium manufacture and repair. Harmless to fish and plants, these silicones adhere perfectly to glass. These silicones do not contain chemicals that can harm living things.

Other Usage Areas of Silicones: It is used especially for sealing connections in windows, greenhouses, swimming pools, cars and boats. Primer is used before application on floors. On plastic surfaces, sanding can be done for a good adhesion. Application temperature should be above 5 degrees. When applied to aquariums, the silicone must dry thoroughly before placing fish and plants.

Silicon Names Used in Turkey and in the World

While it is known as standard silicone, anti mold silicone and white silicone, colored silicone, auto silicone, aquarium silicone, glass silicone, heat resistant silicone, construction silicone, door and window silicone in Turkey; Silicone Sealant, Silicone Mastic, Acetoxy Silicone Sealant, Neutral Silicone Sealant, Sanitary Silicone, Sanitary Silicone Sealant, Fire Rated Silicone Sealant, Rtv Silicone, Rtv Silicone Sealant, Glazing Silicone, Universal Silicone, Aquarium Silicone , silicone caulk, Acrylic gap sealant, silicone It is known by names such as gap filling.

Acrylic sealant is basically a sealing material obtained from water-based acrylic resins. It is not suitable for use in places that will be directly exposed to water. Being a paintable material makes acrylic sealant ideal for interior and exterior decoration. It hardens after drying. It is nature friendly. It provides protection from dust and insects that may come from various surface cavities.

Since it is resistant to humidity, low or high temperatures, it can be applied to different materials both indoors and outdoors.

Generally; In construction, closing all kinds of cracks and gaps, expansion joints between prefabricated building elements, assembly of wood, PVC, iron and aluminum joinery, plastering of joinery, joint joints, eternit, aluminum roof and facade cladding plates and door frames, windows, construction joints and It is used in sanitary installations, on porous surfaces such as brick, concrete, wood, gypsum board, ytong.

Acrylic Sealant Names Used in Turkey and the World

In Turkey, it can be found in names such as Acrylic Sealant, Siliconized acrylic sealant, mastic paste, water-based acrylic sealant, fire resistant acrylic sealant, Elastic acrylic sealant, construction sealant, joint sealant, door and window sealant, in the world; It is known by names such as Acrylic Sealant, Siliconized Acrylic Sealant, Acrylic Caulk, Siliconized Acrylic Caulk, Latex Acrylic Sealant, Latex Acrylic Caulk, Siliconized acrylic latex caulk, Decorators caulk.

Acrylic sealant, which is used in exterior systems and interior equipment methods, is mixed with silicone sealant many times. Although it has similar properties with silicone, acrylic sealants, which have a different structure, perform much higher than silicone in some areas and provide good results for many years. For this reason, acrylic sealant is considered suitable for use in some regions, while silicone can be used for more efficient results in some regions. With the use of suitable products on suitable surfaces, it is possible to use the surface without any problems for a longer time. With a few exceptions, silicone can also be used in any area where acrylic sealant is used in general. However, for good results, the usage areas of acrylic sealant and the usage areas of silicone should be evaluated separately.

The main general differences between silicone and acrylic sealant are that they are mostly used as bonding material in the silicone isolation method. Acrylic mastic is preferred as a filling and insulation product. Both are pretty much usable in the same areas. While acrylic mastic has the ability to be painted, silicone paint does not hold. Silicone does not lose its flexibility when it dries. However, when acrylic mastic dries, it hardens and loses its elastic properties. These products, both of which are antibacterial, also differ in terms of use and drying times. Acrylic sealant can dry in 12 to 24 hours, while silicone dries in 6 hours. Silicone is more valuable financially and acrylic sealant is a more suitable product than silicone.

Acrylic mastic and silicone, which have common usage areas in general terms, can be preferred instead of each other in places that are not suitable for use, if attention is not paid to them. However, sometimes this causes economic loss. When care is not taken, it causes short-term use and problems in usage areas after a short time. Silicone and acrylic sealant separately construction, isolation and bonding filling methods will be performed much more flawlessly and professionally.

One of the most important reasons why acrylic mastic is preferred in construction, isolation and other areas is its use on large surfaces. Using silicone on large surfaces will be very costly, and therefore many masters prefer the use of acrylic mastic for large areas. Another reason why acrylic mastic is preferred in filling processes is that it provides high performance. Because unlike silicone, acrylic sealant, which loses its flexibility in the area where it is used and provides a smooth appearance as a filling material, can easily be applied with all paint types. Acrylic sealant, which is used as an ideal product for wall repairs, has the same properties as silicone when it comes to durability against external factors. Silicone is widely used in interior construction methods. It has insulation bonding feature in bathrooms, bathtubs, sinks and many other areas. However, the use of silicone is preferred for bonding bathroom utensils. Because in such places, the use of silicone is much more ideal.

While the color options used in silicone are transparent, white, black, gray and brown, acrylic sealant has white, black, gray and brown options. However, while silicone does not have the property of being painted, acrylic sealant can be used with all kinds of paints. Silicone PVC is preferred in wooden joinery and bathtubs, while acrylic sealant is preferred in small cracks, water and dust insulation. At the same time, both products are resistant to ultraviolet rays. Silicone is used with a silicone gun and acrylic sealant is used with a sealant gun. These two products, which have antibacterial properties, cure in 5 minutes, while acrylic sealant cures in 25 minutes. These two products, which have both common and different features, are the highest performance products preferred in construction, construction and filling methods.

Polyurethane foam is a one-component, semi-rigid assembly, joint filler and insulation material in aerosol form that cures with humidity in the air, expands while curing.

Flexible polyurethane foams are mainly used in door and window assembly, all kinds of gap filling applications, sound and heat insulation, waterproof barriers and insulation against fire. After polyurethane foam is applied, it reacts quickly with the moisture in the air and expands. Thanks to the superior bonding strength of polyurethane, it adheres strongly to the surfaces it is applied to.

What are the Uses of Polyurethane Foams?

Door and window assembly is the most effective use of PU Foams. Insulation of electrical installations, hot and cold water pipes, bonding of roof tiles, for sealing purposes on terraces, curtain concrete of buildings, industrial roof insulation, cold storages and icehouses, on the deck of ships and yachts, filling the gaps between exterior insulation materials, bonding insulation materials. It is used for space filling and isolation in dry food warehouses.

How are Polyurethane Foams Applied?

The pipette or gun apparatus is screwed to the valve on the tin. The can is shaken vigorously for 20 seconds and pressure is applied to the trigger of the straw or gun, holding it upside down. The stronger the pressure, the stronger the output. On vertical surfaces, the foam is always applied from the bottom up. During the application, care should be taken to ensure that the ambient and tin temperature is within the range specified in the product TDS.

What are the Polyurethane Foam Types?

Polyurethane foams can be divided into two parts according to the application type and purpose;

Polyurethane Foams According to Application Type;

Foams with Straw: It can be said that it is the most common and best-selling foam type in the market. It is applied with the pipette apparatus supplied with each can. It is preferred for filling relatively large gaps due to its high expansion rate (200%-250% on average).

Gun (Professional) Foams: It is used with a special application gun. It is a product that appeals more to professionals. It is preferred for filling relatively narrow gaps since its expansion rate is low (average 50-60%).

Polyurethane Foams According to the Purpose of Use;

Gap Filling Foams: It is the standard and most widely used foam type.

Adhesive Foams: They are foams with increased adhesive properties because their expansion rates are much lower (minimal) than standard foams and their polymer is more dense. With these products, heat insulation materials such as EPX, XPS, various building elements such as gas concrete, brick and marble can be adhered.

Contribution of Polyurethane Foams to Sound, Heat and Water Insulation;

Correct application of PU Foam is required for a good insulation.

Sound insulation

They are used in filling the gaps between the materials used for sound insulation, in order to prevent the passage of sound, heat and air in the door and window gaps, to insulate the environment of ventilation pipes, chimneys and climatic units extending outside the buildings, and in many other similar areas.

Thermal insulation

For thermal insulation, 2-component rigid (rigid) foams are preferred.

Water isolation

Water cannot harm a properly applied and fully cured foam. Single-component polyurethane foams are preferred in outdoor applications, ornamental pools, attaching decorative stones to each other, in caravan type vehicles to prevent water leaking from the joints of mechanisms such as the climatic unit or antenna.

What is the Life of PU Foam?

It is as durable as the life of the structure as long as it is not exposed to intense UV rays. UV rays cause the foam to deform by disrupting its structure. The dried foam can be protected from harmful rays by painting it.

Is there humidity, wetness, perspiration, humidity in the places where the application is made with Rigid Spray Foam?

Rigid foam is applied to the roof of buildings and has an excellent thermal insulation ability. The person living on the top floor will definitely not see moisture, humidity and therefore mold on the ceiling, if there is no point that can create a thermal bridge elsewhere in the building.

Does Polyurethane Foam Burn?

According to the German standard DIN 4102, there are B1 and B2 fire resistant foams, and these products show resistance to burning for certain periods when exposed to direct flame or in an environment where fire continues.

How to Clean?

The most practical way to clean uncured foam is to use foam cleaner. During the application, foam cleaner can be sprayed on the foam before it dries, and it can be removed from all building materials, skin, textile products, etc. removable. In cases where foam cleaners are not available, acetone can also be used. Cured foam can only be used with utility knives etc. can be cleaned by mechanical means.

Polyurethane Foam Names Used in Turkey and in the World

In Turkey, it is referred to as insulation foam, construction foam, spray foam, polyurethane foam, assembly foam, one-component foam, door window foam, thermal insulation foam, sound insulation foam, expanding foam, space-filling foam, swelling foam throughout the world; It is known as one component pu foam, polyurethane pu foam, OCF pu foam sealant, gap filling pu foam, window assembling pu foam, mounting pu foam, mounting pu foam, heat insulation pu foam, sound isolation pu foam, door assembling pu foam.

Blind casing tapes, which are used to prevent thermal bridges and sound bridges, and to reduce dust and vibrations, are very good sealing products. Blind casing tapes, extra resistant to UV rays, which can be used in areas where thermal insulation will be provided, are adhesive on one side, and it is a product named in the market as polyurethane sealing tape.

Blind Case Tape PE Foam Tape products are also a highly preferred product in the automotive industry. This product, which is preferred in almost every field in our country, from white goods activities to the construction sector, has superior stability and surface quality. The product is highly resistant to wear and tear in the areas where it is applied. It is unaffected by many chemicals.

Blind Case Tape Features

When we look at the usage areas of the blind casing tape product, it is used in almost every sector and in every field. Polyethylene blind casing tapes, which are generally suitable for indoor use, are a product that can provide very high performance.

Blind casing tapes have a rubber-based adhesive. Thanks to the product, you will have an economical solution for sealing your doors. You can also enable permanent waterproofing between surfaces in blind casing tapes in your buildings and areas.

The vapor barrier cover products, which provide additional insulation in buildings, protect the energy in the heat and consist of three layers, have fast application and are economical.

The fact that the concretes are moist and fresh is a situation that your buildings are under construction. It is important to carry out dehumidification processes in newly constructed buildings. Especially in the winter periods, the formation of moist concrete can damage your structures. It is recommended to use temporary barriers to avoid these situations.

Vapor barrier covers are the same as moisture barrier products. Moisture barrier and vapor barrier covers protect your structures from moisture issues and problems. Thanks to the moisture barrier and vapor barrier products recommended for use on roofs and building facades, the building has a breathing insulation. The use of moisture barrier and vapor barrier products is very important for the health of buildings and people living in them.

Steam Interrupt Cover Applications

The applications of vapor barrier products are made for the purpose of insulation and include protecting the erosion in the drainages of the buildings, providing the insulation on the roofs, protecting the membrane products applied in the building and more. Thanks to the vapor stabilizer and cutting products to be used in the buildings, the buildings breathe and remain healthier.

The application of vapor barrier covers is made on roofs and facades. This product, which is suitable for your vertical and horizontal overlapping uses, should be laid on the area to be applied taut, leaving at least 10 centimeters of overlap.

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