Glass is a liquid formed by the dissolution of supercooled alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides and some other metal oxides, and its main material (SiO2) is silicon.
Glass is a fluid substance. Glasses can be defined as inorganic bodies that solidify while preserving their amorphous structure in the molten state. Due to rapid cooling during production, an amorphous structure is formed instead of a crystalline structure. This structure gives the glass strength and transparency. Although glass practically appears as a solid, technically it is a liquid substance. Viscosity, which is one of the general properties of liquid substances, is a property found in glass. In other words, glass is a fluid substance, but the flow time is so long that a human cannot observe this flow. That’s why we see glass as a solid
Glass is one of the oldest artificial materials discovered and produced by man. The oldest glass product ever found in archaeological excavations dates back to BC. It belongs to 5500 BC and was found in Egypt. In the first known glass recipe, it is written that 60 parts of sand, 180 parts of algae and seaweed ash, 5 parts of saltpeter and 3 parts of chalk (limestone) are used. The first step in glass making is to heat the raw material mixture until all the ingredients melt and fuse with each other. When the mixture melts, it turns into a paste-like frit. After giving the desired shape to this hot dough, it must be slowly cooled, ie annealed, in order to prevent the glass from breaking or breaking by stretching while cooling. The annealing furnace is in the form of a long tunnel. As the glassware passes through this tunnel, the temperature is gradually lowered so slowly that it takes much longer for the glass to cool than it does in the open air.
Until the end of the 19th century, almost all kinds of glassware were produced by hand. However, today, apart from some special parts, all glass work is done with mass production in very fast machines.
Today, glass is a modern and versatile material. Glass, which is mostly used in transparent or translucent form, is generally hard, brittle and allows the preservation of liquids, is used in the packaging of many products such as food, beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals due to its transparency, shape, odor and taste and resistance to most chemicals. It is preferred, and it has a very common usage area from the simplest equipment to communication and space technologies.
Glass is produced from silica (sand), soda ash and lime, feldspar and trace elements, which are abundant in the earth’s crust. Among these raw materials, silica is very important and its supply is actually unlimited. Soda ash can be produced chemically with the use of salt and can be found naturally by mineral formation. Lime is an abundant substance.
Glass is a fluid material formed by the dissolution of instantly cooled alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides and some other metal oxides, and solidifies while preserving its amorphous structure. Due to rapid cooling during production, an amorphous structure is formed instead of a crystalline structure. This structure gives the glass strength and transparency.
Since glass is an amorphous liquid, it resembles a liquid substance in structure from place to place. Viscosity, which is one of the general properties of liquid substances, is also a property found in glass. Glasses can also be characterized as a solid phase that does not have a distinct melting temperature as solids and exhibits liquid behavior.
For glass making, sand, limestone, feldspar, dolomite, soda and sodium sulphate are mixed in a silo according to certain recipes and melted in glass furnaces at 1500˚C -1600˚C. This fluid material is formed into the desired shape using one of the methods of blowing, pouring, rolling, pressing, rolling, floating, spinning or pouring. The glass produced after shaping may not have the qualities to be used, followed by processes such as cutting, tempering and coloring.
Depending on the usage areas, as will be explained below, it is mainly produced in flat glass, glassware, glass packaging, glass fiber and other fields.
The glass sector is one of the main industrial areas that provides input to many sectors such as construction, automotive, white goods, food, beverages, beverages, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, tourism, catering, furniture, pipes, electricity and electronics, energy, and household segments, with its products in terms of the country’s economy. is of great importance.
All kinds of glass produced by smelting (heating/melting) from blending or cullet and the products obtained as a result of subjecting them to various processes are within the scope of the sector.
The glass industry basically consists of glass products included in the Customs Entry Tariff Schedule, Position 70, and is classified as follows according to the main production areas:
Architectural Glass: Flat Glass, Coated Glass, Heat Treated Glass, Insulating Glass Units, Laminated Glass, Opacified Glass, Frosted Glass, Mirrors, Wire Glass, Glass Brick, Glass Parquet
Automotive Glass: Laminated Glass, Tempered Glass, Special Glass
White Goods Glasses
Glass Fiber (glass wool, glass felt, roving, yarn, clipped bunch etc.)
Other (shards of glass, glass beads, glass bulbs, electric lamps, cathode ray tubes, glass inner bodies, signaling glasses and optical elements of glass, watch and eyeglasses, glass bricks, tiles, tiles, mosaics, glass laboratory and pharmacy articles, glass beads etc.)
Glass production is carried out in processes that follow the basic production processes such as raw materials, blending and melting, as well as secondary processes such as forming and cooling. These processes are briefly as follows:
Raw Material: Materials such as sand, limestone, feldspar, dolomite, soda, sodium sulfate, which are mostly silica-based materials, are made suitable for melting, cleaned and stocked.
Blend: According to the glass to be produced, the above-mentioned materials are mixed according to certain recipes.
Melting: The blend is melted by heating it up to 1500°C – 1600°C in special furnaces using natural gas, fuel-oil or electricity.
Shaping: Again, according to the characteristics of the product, the melted glass is taken to the forming sections. Blowing, pouring, pulling, floating, tossing, pouring, etc. It is put into the desired form by one of the methods. Some of these methods are briefly explained below for informational purposes.
Blowing (Inflating) Method:
The molten glass, which is taken to the end of a long hollow rod called a “pipe” in glassmaking, is swelled a little and shaped into a tiny ball called a fiska, and is cooled so that it will not be affected by the cold too much and crack. Then, by taking into account the weight and dimensions of the glass product to be made, molten glass is taken to the tip of the fountain. If the mold is to be used, the molten glass taken is blown from the mold in a small size and inserted into the mold. When blowing is continued in the mold, glass is obtained according to the shape, length and patterns of the mold. If the mold is not to be used, the glass is shaped by methods such as shaking and stretching. In this case, the glass can be formed into desired shapes until it cools and hardens by using various tools.
In this method, it is applied by pouring the frit on a flat table and then turning it into a plate by passing a cylinder over this frit. The thickness of the glass is determined by two metal laths placed on both sides of the table and on which the frit is rolled.
One side of the glasses produced by this method is flat and the other side is patterned. In some cases, both sides of the glass can be patterned. Although the patterns obtained in the form of indentations and protrusions on the cylinder rolling on the casting table are very diverse, these glasses are called printed glasses because they are all provided by printing in a sense.
Although this formatting method is called “pull”, it can also be called “flowing”. Because the melted and liquefied glass is already ready to flow. A flowing material can be cut, crushed or pulled with suitable tools. Since there is no blowing process, products that are close to thick plates or cylinders are generally obtained from the shapes made in this way. For example: such as glass pipe, glass rod, sheet glass. There are some operations applied in the pull method. These operations must be done sequentially. First, the metal tube is immersed in the molten glass. By rotating the pipe, glass is collected at the end. The glass at the end of the rod is pulled out and roughly shaped. It is extended by sticking a cold stick to this hot mass, or by holding it with special tools. As long as the glass is hot, it can be stretched and shaped. Since the hot mass cools slowly, it can be withdrawn until it is completely consumed.
Float Method (Float):
This method is used in the production of window glasses, which take place in a large part of daily life. The flotation method used in the production of insulating glass for home-office glasses with large dimensions and both surfaces is a method of shaping by pouring molten glass onto liquid tin, which has a higher density than the density of the glass and has a lower melting point, and floats.
The molten glass, which is left with a long ball-shaped rod called “fonga”, by the glass worker manually at the press benches, is deposited into small sized molds that are connected to automatic and hand presses. The molten glass, which is compressed by the applied pressure, is cooled inside the inner and outer mold and turns into glass. Production can be made with the pressing method up to a maximum of 2.5 kg, there are various drawbacks in using the pressing method in large sizes.
Fiber Making Method:
In order to make the glass fiber, the glass, which was previously balled into balls, is placed in a long vessel with small holes at the bottom. The glass beads, which are melted by heating, gain a great surface tension as they flow down the holes in the bottom of the vessel and become very thin and fibrous. The glass, which has become fibrous and cooled, is released onto a cylinder at the bottom. Then, different materials are produced with glass fibers taken from the cylinder. When pressurized steam is blown on the glass that melts and becomes a fiber from the vessel above, the glass fibers are swirled and mixed with each other, giving it a cotton appearance. It is called glass cotton. The blown glass cotton material is called glass wool. The type of glass fibers produced to be used in weaving is called glass silk.
In foaming, the glass is heated together with pure carbon, allowing the carbon to release gas and a glass root is formed. Foamed glass shows very different physical and chemical properties. These include sufficient compressive strength, non-flammability, lightness, high heat retention, dimensional stability, etc. can be summarized as This method is a fairly new technology.
In this method, the flowing glass, which is left in different styles in the molds connected to the benches suitable for torque between 500-900 revolutions, tends to open outwards with the effect of centrifugal force during rotation. Plates, some glass types, chandeliers, fruit stands and glass types of this style are obtained by this method.
Glass, which is a very fragile material in its natural state, is reheated and cooled in a controlled manner and is relieved of internal tension. This makes the material more durable.
Depending on the organization, market, product, etc., the glass product is stored with special packaging and storage equipment.
Since glass is not a bulk and rough cargo, its transportation also requires special vehicles. Glass is transported with trucks and transport equipment produced for this purpose.
Glass-related developments in the building sector focus especially on coated glass in the context of environmental protection and efficient use of energy. These trends highlight high-performance coated insulating glass units and coated solar control glasses such as Tentesol and Tentesol T, offering the consumer more energy-efficient environmentally friendly products.
The sector produces new products such as flame dispersed polyester, low shrinkage resins, polyester resin with low styrene emission to the market in glass fiber production, and produces for automotive, construction and infrastructure, electricity, sports-entertainment, transportation, transportation and defense industry sectors by using boron mine.
In addition, developments in the field of decoration and design lead manufacturers to the production of special design products in glassware, glass doors, sinks and decors in decorative products.
As a result, in line with consumer demands, basic production processes vary on the basis of sub-product groups as well as on the basis of products within the same product groups, so different technologies are applied for different products. In today’s environment, where no radical change is expected in glass production technology in general, production is carried out with the most advanced technologies in our country.
In addition to its sectoral size, flat glass is an important product for the furniture and white goods sectors, especially for the construction and automotive sectors where it provides input.
World flat glass demand is growing at an average rate of 4% to 5% per year, and this rate is higher in developing countries. While Europe, North America and China constitute 76% of the global flat glass demand, production is also predominantly carried out in these regions. The Asia-Pacific Region, which includes China and India, realizes half of the world’s flat glass production. Eastern Europe, Russia, Turkey and the Balkans are increasing their importance in the world flat glass industry day by day as the regions where dynamism is experienced the most with rapid consumption increases and high growth potentials. Russia, the largest market in the region, has been the focus of attention of all flat-glass companies in recent years due to its rapidly increasing consumption and supply gap.
Information about the main flat glass types and production technologies is given below.
Float Glass :
“Float glass” is the basic product of the use of glass for architectural purposes. Float glass is produced by floating glass melt on molten tin. The British company Pilkington developed this process and put it into practice in 1959. In float glass production, auxiliary materials such as 56% silica sand, 18% soda, 26% dolomite, feldspar, limestone and sulfate are melted at 2050 °C and pass through the resting zone. The glass, whose temperature drops to 1550 °C in the resting zone, is floated on the molten liquid tin. This bath consists of a refractory-lined chamber at the bottom and a closed steel section with a nitrogen/hydrogen mixture atmosphere at the top. The glass advances in a controlled manner over the molten tin bath and is directed to move on the rolls in the annealing tunnel as it cools. The glass flowing from the annealing tunnel cools on the line and comes to the automatic cutting and product collection section; here the final product is collected in cut and packaged form. This process ensures that the two sides of the glass are parallel and error-free. T.S. Production takes place in 10288 standard.
Its main features are;
Possibility to produce high quality flat glass from 2 mm to 25 mm thickness ranges as colorless and colored,
There is no capacity limit and high tonnage glass making facilities can use this process,
Thickness and size changes can be made with minimum production loss, production losses consist of only a thin part at the edge of the strip,
Apart from minor maintenance, uninterrupted production can be made with this process during the entire campaign period,
Minimum labor requirement, automatic control of the complete production line,
Allowing on-line monitoring of surface coating processes,
It is the production of coated flat glass products with different properties by subjecting them to secondary processes.
Float glass production in our country was made by Trakya Cam, a subsidiary of Turkey Şişe ve Cam Fabrikaları A.Ş., as the only flat glass producer until 2010. increased to two. Sheet glass production with the Pittsburgh-vertical drawing process, which is an older technology in flat glass production in Turkey, was terminated in 1997 and production continues with the newest technology (float method) applied in flat glass production in the world. Today, almost all of the investments made in the field of flat glass in the world are directed towards the float method. In our country, flat glass is produced in the quality of European manufacturers with this method.
It is the whole of the activities that cover the production, processing and assembly of glass, glazed units, glazing elements and systems used together with other architectural elements in the building, around the building and urban environments.
Environmental Control Glasses:
They are glass and glazed units that regulate the relations between the interior and exterior of the building in terms of external factors such as light, solar radiation heat, heat, noise, and appearance, as well as atmospheric conditions such as rain, wind, dust.
These are the colors formed by the colored chemical substances that are added to the glass while it is forming. These are colored glasses made of dough.
Colors; Smoked (grey), Bronze (brown), Green , Blue
Thicknesses; Smoked, Bronze, Blue colored glasses are generally 3-10mm thick. Green colored glass is produced in 2.2-6mm thickness.
The sandblasting process made by spraying on the glass is called matte glass.
The process of making the glasses smooth as a result of acid washing is called satin glass.
Glasses formed as a result of printing flat or shapes on the glass in the oven are called.
The frosted glass produced by passing the glass melt between two rollers, one of which is patterned, using the horizontal flat glass drawing process, has one side flat and the other patterned. Frosted and wire glasses, produced in various colors and patterns, have been marketed in the construction and especially in the energy sector in recent years. This product, which is used as door glass or interior glass in building parts such as bathrooms and bedrooms, where light and privacy are important together, and as refrigerator glass in the white goods sector, is also used as PV glass (photovoltaic) in the solar cells sector.
It is the name given to various double glazing applications of flat glasses in order to provide energy saving and sound insulation and as a result of the search for comfort indoors. It is prepared by lathing between two glasses to the desired size. It has technical applications with various types of flat glass.
Surface coating technologies are the most important way to add properties to float glass produced with float technology. Many techniques can be used in this area, including on-line and off-line. “Solar and heat control glasses”, which are produced for energy saving and environment, are now products that replace flat glass in the world, especially in developed countries. Today, large flat glass manufacturers produce solar and heat control glasses to increase energy savings, focus on products with high added value such as high performance glasses and increase their product range. In order to maintain its competitiveness in the Turkish flat glass sector, it focuses on these products, which are based on high technology and increase value, in parallel. High performance qualified insulating glasses “low-e” and “solar low-e” reduce heat losses by 77% compared to single glazing and 50% compared to conventional double glazing. If qualified insulating glass is used in all existing houses in our country, it is predicted that 2.5 billion dollars can be saved every year in Turkey. The use of energy-saving products has become widespread with the entry into force of the “TS 825 Thermal Insulation Rules Standard”, which encourages the use of insulated glasses in new buildings, in 2008.
They are glazing combinations and/or soft coatings that combine both solar control and climate control features.
Solar Control Glasses/Coatings:
They are glass or coatings that control the solar energy entering the interior, making interior spaces more comfortable and saving cooling costs.
Out of Line Coatings:
These are the coatings made in another facility on the glass that has left the float line and taken into stock. If necessary, the tempering process can be done before coating.
It is the name of a soft coating that means low emissivity, providing heat control.
They are on-line or off-line coatings that are resistant to scratching, abrasion and moisture. Hard coated glasses can be used as single glass in buildings. They do not require “edge stripping” during the production of insulating glass.
They are non-line coated glasses that are not resistant to scratching, abrasion and moisture, but have higher performance values. Soft coated glasses can only be used in insulating glass in buildings. There is a need for “edge stripping” during the production of insulating glass.
Sound insulation can be improved in the double glazing unit by choosing two different glass thicknesses. If it is desired to provide optimum performance, the thickness of the glass close to the noise source should be 30% more than the other glass so that the sound vibration and transmission between the two glasses can be reduced. Likewise, sound insulation can be improved with laminated glass. Glass and PVB thicknesses used in laminated glass are effective in this. Insulating glass gap should be chosen as wide as possible (max. 20 mm). Argon gas, which improves heat insulation, has very little effect on sound insulation.
In making toughened or tempered glass, the temperature is increased regularly until the glass begins to become plastic. Then it is immediately removed from the oven, curled at the necessary places with suitable tools and cooled properly by cold air blown strongly on it. Thus, the glass surface gains much more resistance to crushing forces than normal, and it does not break even if it is broken.
Safety glasses are mainly divided into two according to the production method;
Tempered glasses: In special heating systems, the temperature is increased regularly until the glasses begin to become soft, and they are brought to levels between 620 °C and 645 °C. Then it is immediately removed from the oven, curled at the necessary places with suitable tools and cooled properly by cold air blown strongly on it. Glass subjected to heat treatment (heating and sudden cooling) is shaped as flat and curved. It is used in the automotive, construction and white goods industries. The mechanical strength given by the tempering process makes the tempered glass 5 times stronger than normal glass. The glass surface gains much more resistance to crushing forces than normal glass, in case of breakage, it breaks into small pieces, thus minimizing the risk of injury. After the glass is turned into tempered glass, processes such as cutting and grinding cannot be done.
tempered glasses; Since they contain much more safety and are more durable than other normal glasses, especially in motor vehicles, facade windows of buildings, creating a winter garden by closing the gardens with glass, closing balconies, dividing workplaces with glass, stair step construction, elevator windows, shower cabins, curved industrial refrigerators, some They are used for glazing and balcony needs in businesses such as white goods, cafes, patisseries. In addition, in the field of energy, tempered glasses are used in solar collectors that produce hot water by utilizing solar energy and in solar cells that produce electricity (photovoltaic-PV).
Laminated glasses are produced by combining two or more glass plates under heat and pressure with the help of colored or colorless special binder polyvinyl butyral (PVB) layers. It keeps the parts in place in case of breakage, reducing the risk of injury. Because of this feature, laminated glass is considered as safety glass. Laminated glasses are used in the construction and automotive sectors as flat and curved. However, bulletproof double or multi-layer laminated glasses are made.
Due to the scattering of glass after breaking and its resistance to the passage of objects, it has the potential to be widely used in places where security problems are expected, both for human health, theft and attack. Laminated glass does not greatly change the transparency and transmittance properties of normal glasses. Because the optical properties of the glass and the interlayers used are close to each other. Laminated glass is also a useful product with its contribution to noise insulation and low UV permeability. Laminated glass can be produced with colored colorless PVB, colorless and reflective glass combinations. In addition, laminated glass is produced with tempered glass combinations, if necessary, and is also included in insulation units.
Laminated glass combinations can also be produced by using colored glass, colored PVB and by changing the glass thicknesses. PVB thicknesses; 0.38, 0.76, 1.14 and 1.52
In addition, the use of safety glass in areas where there is a need for security in buildings was made mandatory in 2010 with the “TS 13433 Code of Practice for Human Impact Safety Used in Glass Buildings” standard. With this standard, the use of laminated glass is mandatory in areas that need security.
It is the oldest type of surface coating in the historical development of glass. Metal solutions (eg silver) are applied to the surface at the appropriate temperature by spraying the metal salt and applying another reducing solution. It finds use in construction, furniture, decoration, automotive industries and various optical applications. In addition, as a result of the studies carried out, environmentally friendly mirror production has also been achieved.
Glass bricks are specially shaped glasses that transmit light and can be walled. Glass wall bricks are obtained by gluing the edges of two half glass bricks shaped by pressing method by hot melting. It is a good heat retainer thanks to the presence of trapped dry air in between. Glass bricks with different heat permeability are obtained by making very different patterns on these glasses.
The global economic crises experienced in recent years have caused a slowdown and postponement of the demand in the glass sector, as in all other sectors. However, domestic glass demand and consumption increased as a result of the recent increase in household consumption expenditures in the Turkish economy, the positive effect of the increase in national income per capita, and the decrease in glass product prices in real terms.
Looking at glass products one by one, it is seen that the demand is mostly directed towards products with high added value. For example, the construction sector, which uses flat glass as an input, demands processed glass products such as double glazing, coated glass, laminated glass instead of raw glass. In glassware, different designs come to the fore instead of classical shapes and colors. In addition to different designs in glass packaging, efforts to lighten and increase durability drive the demand. Glass fiber, glass wool and other glass products are involved in applications that are constantly differentiating and enriching in many areas.
The glass industry is in contact with many sectors and sub-industry with its products.
Flat glass and processed glass products to the construction, agriculture (greenhouse), automotive, energy, white goods, and furniture sectors,
Glass packaging for food, beverage (water, milk, soft drink, mineral water), alcoholic beverages (wine, beer, etc.), pharmaceutical, cosmetics industries,
Glassware household segment, tourism (such as hotels, restaurants, cafes), food, promotion and retail sectors,
Glass fiber is an input to glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) products, while FRP products provide input to construction, transportation vehicles (land, sea, railway), furniture, pipes, electricity and electronics industries.
The quality, color, design and printing demands of these sectors are answered, machinery, equipment and technology investments are made for their demands, and new products are developed and innovations in the sector are pioneered.
The slowdown in domestic demand in Turkey was reflected in all sub-sectors in the form of recession or contraction, and one of the most affected sectors was the construction sector. After the contraction in 2009, the growth in the construction sector, which followed a rapid course, remained at a low level of 1% in 2012. However, it is added that building permits, which increased by 22% in 2012, housing sales that increased by 4.6%, and urban transformation projects will stimulate the sector and have a positive effect on flat glass consumption in the upcoming period. In addition, the search for an energy identity document in new buildings will bring along the use of more qualified glass that provides thermal insulation in building renovations and new building constructions.
Turkey is the 16th largest automotive market in the world in terms of automotive production and the 6th largest automotive market in Europe after Germany, England, Italy, France and Spain. Turkey is one of the production bases of major automotive manufacturers. Parallel to this development in the industry, the Turkish automotive market has become a part of the global market at this point and has become a large market where almost all international brands compete. Almost all of the automotive companies operating in Turkey obtain their auto glass supplies from domestic automotive glass manufacturers.
The slowdown in the growth of the Turkish economy, the volatility of credit costs and the increase in SCT caused the Turkish automobile and light commercial vehicle market to shrink, and in this context, the Turkish automotive market decreased by 10% compared to 2011.
The contraction in the European automotive market, originating from Western Europe, continued due to the economic crisis. While there was an 8% shrinkage in the Western European automotive market, a more positive picture was realized in the Eastern European market. It is observed that the size of the automotive market in Russia, which is one of the markets with high potential of the world automotive industry, has started to reach pre-crisis levels.
The 8% contraction in the European market also affected Turkish automotive exports at the same rate. In 2012, automotive vehicle exports decreased by 8% compared to 2011. The contraction in demand in domestic and foreign markets also directly affected automotive production, and total automotive production in 2012 decreased by 10% compared to the previous year.
The installed capacity of solar cells, which generate electricity from solar energy, reached a level of 100 GW in total, with the installations following a horizontal course in 2012, following the rapid growth experienced all over the world in 2011. In the world solar energy market, Turkey has a significant potential in the field of solar energy utilization. According to the plan of the Ministry of Energy covering the years 2010-2014, it is aimed to meet 30% of energy consumption from renewable energy sources. In this direction, with the 600 MW license distribution for solar power plants by the Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) in June 2013, a recovery is expected in the solar energy installed power in Turkey and thus in the energy glass market.
Like other renewable energy sources, the solar energy sector promises high growth potential all over the world and in our country. Glass manufacturers in our country continue to work to develop and diversify glass products that contribute to increasing the efficiency of solar energy systems.
White Goods Sector:
Production in the white goods sector in Turkey increased by 8% compared to 2011. Refrigerator production, the segments to which Trakya Cam provides input, grew by 12% and oven production by 4%. European white goods production, on the other hand, maintained its production volume at the same level as in 2011.
In the field of glass packaging, especially in the food and cosmetics sector, the developing product range and the increasing importance of packaging in distribution channels activates the sector. With its customer-oriented production and marketing approach, the glass industry will improve its existing products and continue to meet the demands by adding new products to its current production in parallel with the developments and demands in the sectors it provides inputs.
Glasses that do not reach the desired dimensions after production are cut in order to correct the desired size or shape. Diamond cutting, CNC cutting, blowtorch heat cutting are some of the glass cutting types. Since the ends of the glasses produced by the blowing method are flat and sharp, the blowtorch is brought into a flat shape by thermal cutting and the lip parts are not cutting because no cutting tool is used.
Any other process other than sandblasting, tearing, painting on tempered glass; Glass explodes when cutting, drilling, countersinking, edge and surface grinding operations are performed. For this reason, the glass that will enter the tempering process; dimensioning, grinding, drilling, etc. The operations that will be needed must be done before the tempering process.
The edges of the glasses to be tempered must be grinded or sanded, the burrs on the edge of the glass or the edge of the hole must be cleaned by countersinking, otherwise the glass will explode in the oven during the tempering process. The diameter of the holes in the glass to be tempered should be at least as much as the glass thickness. In case the hole diameter is smaller than the glass thickness, the glass explodes in the furnace during the tempering process. In addition, the holes on the glass should not be too close to the edge of the glass and should not be concentrated in a certain area close to each other.
It is the process of giving a profile to the sharp ends of the glass with a diamond stone.
For detailed information…
Since transparent glasses do not create a decorative image according to the application area of the glass, they can be colored according to the usage area. Glasses painted by printing and spraying are tempered when necessary or by applying tension heat treatment to ensure that the paint and glass adhere well. In the tensional heat treatment, the inlet temperature is sent to the furnace at 550 °C and comes out as 55 °C on the other hand with the roller belt system for 1.5 hours.
Acid and sandblasting are the processes of giving a decorative image by creating etching on the glass surface. In order to create this appearance, the glass surface is covered with paper or PVC foil. These foils can be glued by hand or by cutting them in special cutting machines. Sandblasting is the process done by removing the areas to be sandblasted from the glass surface to reveal the pattern on these foils, and then by changing the nozzles of the pressure paint guns and spraying the glass surface with compressed air.
In acid treatment, HF (hydrofluoric acid), which is the only acid that affects the glass, is used. In this, as described above, it is a method of pouring acid on the exposed area, reacting with the glass surface and creating an abrasion in that area. Another method is the process called acid leaching. In this process, it is made by applying a thin layer of bead glue, which has been boiled into glue and added some HF (hydrofluoric acid) in the meantime, on the glass whose entire surface has been abraded by sandblasting and left to dry. As it dries, due to the surface tension, peeling starts on the glass and a process called tearing occurs.
In this process, the glass, which is subjected to thermal shock during tempering, is bent at a certain radius ratio without cooling. The cooling in the tempering machine is applied at the moment of bending. Since glass with one side smaller than 230mm cannot hold between the cylinders, tempering and dishing cannot be done.
Transparent panels formed by fixing 2 or 3 glass panels at a certain distance with their surfaces parallel to each other with spacer strips on the edges and ensuring the impermeability of the air or inert gas in the intermediate space are called “insulating glass”. Although it is called “insulating glass”, it is desired that the glass has many more features such as sunlight and heat control, safety, security, noise control, and clarity when necessary. Therefore, when deciding on the choice of glass, all these requirements should be determined and the selection should be made accordingly.
Insulating glass units consist of the following elements:
Inner insulation filler (butyl – polyisobutylene, mastic or tape)
Spacer strip (aluminum, galvanized steel or warm-edge glazing bead-warm-edge for better insulation)
dehumidifier (slicate gel)
External insulation filler (polysulfide – polyurethane – silicone, impermeable sealant)
In insulating glasses, the surfaces of the glass panels are numbered from outside to inside. Therefore, in a double glazing, the outer surface of the outer glass is called the 1st surface, and the inner surface of the inner glass is called the 4th surface.
Energy performance of insulating glasses can be evaluated with 3 components
Heat losses (expressed in heat transmission coefficient Ug (Uglass))
Solar heat gain (solar factor)
Daylight transmittance (VT)
According to some glass types:
Solar Factor (%)
Daylight Transmittance (%)
Standard Insulating Glass
Low-E Coated Insulating Glass
Solar Low-E Coated Insulating Glass
The most accurate values can be obtained from glass manufacturers. The energy performance of insulating glasses can be expressed by considering 3 components.
Heat losses occur from the temperature difference between the outdoor and indoor environment. Heat escapes from the hot side to the cold side. The heat transfer coefficient of the glass determines the heat losses in the glass. If the heat transmission coefficient is low, the heat cannot easily pass to the other side. The gap between the 2 glasses prevents the heat from spreading by conduction. Heat losses also decrease from 5.6 W/m2K to 2.7 W/m2K. However, another improvement, the use of Low-E (Low Emissivity/Low Emissivity) coated glass, can reduce heat losses to 1.3 W/m2K by keeping the heat inside. Low-E coating is always applied on the 2nd surface of the glass, although it is rarely applied on the 3rd surface. Today, in climates where heating costs are important, care is taken to choose Low-E glass in glass selection.
The Low-E coating allows short wavelength solar heat to pass through the glass. 3% of the sun’s heat is emitted in ultraviolet (ultraviolet), 44% in visible light, and 53% in the wavelengths we call infrared light. That is, about half of the solar energy is emitted from visible light and half from short-wavelength infrared radiation. Low-E coating does not reflect short wave solar infrared rays, allowing them to enter inside. In other words, Low-E glasses do not have a reducing effect on the solar factor (solar heat gain). This is called passive solar control. In climates that do not need cooling in summer (such as Erzurum, Kars), passive solar control means reducing heating costs by allowing solar heat to enter when heating is needed. In other words, normal Low-E glasses are a better choice than solar Low-E glasses for geographies that do not need cooling in summer (such as Erzurum, Kars).
The solar energy that is allowed inside and the heating system of the house together heat the room. In the indoor environment, heat spreads at long wavelengths. Low-E glass reflects this long wavelength emission back inside.
Low-E: Low Emissivity means low emissivity. Low emissivity is a result of reflectivity. Low-E glasses reflect long-wave radiation. The radiations are sorted according to their wavelengths from short to long as ultraviolet, visible light and infrared light. Earth does not produce visible light or ultraviolet radiation (emission). All emission created by Earth is infrared long wave propagation. The heat in the furniture emits long-wavelength radiation, and this radiation is reflected in the Low-E glass and returns to the indoor environment. Think of this coating as a reflective but hollow surface coating, just like a thermos. This coating does not affect visibility but reflects long wave radiation (radiation).
To increase thermal insulation:
2 spaces are created by using 3 glass panels instead of 2.
Some inert gas such as Argon is filled instead of the air gap.
Warm edge glazing lath (warm-edge) is used as insulated glass gap lath
By using one or more of these measures, heat losses in the glass can be minimized.
Visible light and infrared rays cause heat. How much solar heat the glass absorbs is indicated by the solar factor as a percentage. The climatic conditions and the location of the window should be known in order to be able to speak of less or more solar heat gains as an advantage or disadvantage.
If there is no need for cooling indoors at any time of the year, it is clear that we will want to make maximum use of solar heat in winter, so that we can reduce heating costs. In this case, normal Low-E coated glasses without solar control are very suitable, because they allow the sun’s heat to penetrate. This is also called passive solar control.
If we are talking about a window in a hot climate (such as İzmir, Muğla, Antalya) where cooling costs are high in summer, it would be more appropriate to use solar-controlled solar Low-E glasses with a low solar factor, that is, a lower rate of solar heat. Moreover, solar Low-E glasses, which are spectral selective, reflect the sun’s heat-causing rays while helping to bring the daylight in to the maximum extent. Reflective glasses also provide solar control, but may not be the best method since they reflect sunlight (visible wavelengths of sunlight in the spectrum), spectral selective solar Low-E glasses may be preferred.
This third and last element is related to how much we want to benefit from visible light. Since half of the sun’s heat is visible light, it is obvious that when we reflect daylight, the sun’s heat will also decrease. However, thanks to spectral selective glasses, it is possible to reduce solar heat without reflecting light. Just like in the solar heat gain factor, what we expect in the daylight transmittance will be the determining factor in the glass selection.
Low-E glass prevents the passage of ultraviolet (UV) rays, which cause fading of the colors of goods and fabrics, by 76%, and solar Low-E glass by 91%. Accordingly, solar low-e glasses are also recommended because they prevent fading on goods and fabrics. This is another dimension of solar control.
Solar control: solar heat and daylight
Solar control is not a concept that we can say less is better, or more is better. We want to benefit from the sun’s light in a certain amount or we want to be protected. In the same way, we want to benefit or be protected from the heat to a certain extent. The concept of solar control is to optimize these 2 variables, namely solar heat and light, according to our needs.
Our desire to benefit from the sun’s heat and light may differ (which it does) depending on the direction of the façade to be applied, the season and even the time of day. For example, nowadays, in prestigious buildings with glass facades, different glasses are used on the north facade and different glasses on the south facade. This shows that we should evaluate and implement solar control holistically for every project.
Solar Control with Shading Elements
In order to improve the conditions where cooling is needed, or even if there is no need for cooling, uncomfortable situations caused only by direct sunlight; For example, glare, excessive brightness, damage to the objects in the room by UV rays, fading can be counted. In order to eliminate these, solar control by using shading elements is the first method considered. By using shading elements, it can be protected from the heat and light of the direct sun, and we can optimize this amount of protection seasonally or according to certain times of the day with movable shading elements. For example, we do not want the shading elements to work actively at certain times in order to benefit from the sun’s heat in periods when heating is needed. Even deciduous trees in winter can be considered a mobile shading element. They act as a seasonal selective shading element, allowing the sun’s rays to come in in the winter and not in the summer.
Correctly positioned shading elements block the sun’s rays coming from the top in the summer, while providing the same sun rays in the winter, even if they are fixed, they act as seasonal selective shading elements. In addition, by using movable shading elements, we can choose to benefit from different amounts of sunlight and heat at different times of the day. Movable shading elements can be automatic or even a curtain is a movable shading element. It is possible to obtain energy with automatically controlled shading elements, even solar panels over the shading element, and such examples exist. As you can see, solar control is a subject that can be handled as both very complex and very simple.
With shading elements, we can perform seasonal or even selective solar control at different times of the day with movable shading elements. Shading elements are something that must be taken into account. In addition, the glass / frame ratio of windows and facades is also an important factor in determining solar control. If we think of shading elements and seasonal and even moving shadows to some extent, the sun control features of the glasses come to the fore. Thus, we come to the subject of solar control on glass, which is the main topic of this article.
The solar factor value (g) of the glass indicates the amount of solar heat utilization. The presence of shading elements and the possibility of daily and seasonal automatic or manual movement of these elements will invalidate the inferences made on the solar factor of the glass.
Thermal Transmittance Coefficient (Thermal transmittance coefficient):Ug (Thermal transmittance coefficient)
Heat losses in glasses are measured by the heat transmission coefficient (EN 673). Lower U-value; It means better thermal insulation, less heating costs and more winter comfort. The thermal insulation value of the window depends on the Uw: the U value of the frame (Uf: Uframe) and the U value of the glass (Ug: Uglazing).
Daylight Transmittance: VT (Visible Transmittance)
The percentage of the visible wavelength of the light coming into the glass (approximately 380 – 720 nanometers) passing through the glass is called daylight transmittance. It is specified in the EN 410 standard. Sunlight provides natural lighting. Therefore, getting enough sunlight indoors is also important in terms of lighting as well as warming. Moreover, sunlight meets not only the need for lighting, but also the need for comfort as natural light.
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (Solar Energy Total Permeability, Solar Factor: g value, SHGC (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient)
It is the percentage of the total solar energy that enters the glass. It is defined by the EN 410 standard. A lower solar total transmittance value means better solar control. Solar Energy is a phenomenon that is desired to be avoided in hot weather and to benefit from in cold weather. Therefore, it would be logical to choose the glass through which the light and heat is transmitted more on the northern façades, where the illumination will be less, but which will be less warm. However, in hot climates, we would like to avoid it as much as possible, since solar energy will increase cooling costs. In cold climates, high SHGC is preferred to make maximum use of passive solar energy. (>0.55) In hot climates, it is recommended to be less than 0.4.
Solar Low-L glasses aim to reduce the solar heat gain coefficient without reducing the value of daylight transmittance, thus reducing cooling costs.
Shading Coefficient: b factor, SC (Shading Coefficient)
It was a standard used in the past and it has left its place to the Solar Energy Total Permeability value that we have given above. It is included in the EN 410 standard. This coefficient is the ratio of the solar heat gain coefficient of the window for which it is given to the solar heat gain coefficient of a standard reference window with a single wing 3mm transparent glass that receives radiation under the same environmental conditions and in the same way. If this value is greater than 1, it is taken into account in increasing the gain from the sun, and if it is small, in reducing the gain from the sun and therefore in solar control. We can find the SHGC value by multiplying the SC value by 0.87.
Selectivity Ratio (Daylight – Solar Energy gain ratio) LSG= VT / SHGC (LSG: Light-to-Solar Gain Ratio)
In the past, glasses that reduced heat gain also had the effect of reducing daylight. But today, it is possible not to cause the same decrease in daylight gain while reducing the solar gain coefficient. It is meaningful to talk about the ratio of Daylight Gain / Solar Energy Gain in order to indicate this feature. LSG ratio is an important criterion in defining the performance of windows today.
Color fidelity: (Color diffusion index, color rendering index) Ra %
It is a value between 1 and 100, and the larger the index, the more natural the colors look. The color diffusion index is determined according to EN 410. Glasses with high color fidelity are obtained with glasses containing low iron. The daylight transmittance of Şişecam’s Ultra Clear glasses is at the level of 91% and there is no greenish color in the glasses, the colors are much clearer.
It is the percentage of solar energy in ultraviolet wavelengths passed through. High UV transmittance causes fading.
Noise control: Rw (C; Ctr) (acoustic insulation)
As an inevitable result of city life, noise and sound pollution affect our lives more or less. In order to prevent the noise problem, which brings many psychological effects such as stress, distress, loss of concentration and insomnia, in addition to its physiological effects such as hearing loss and hypertension, it is inevitable that we have expectations from the glasses that occupy a significant surface area on the building facades. When the glasses are chosen correctly, they can respond to this expectation. For this, all glass manufacturers have acoustic laminated glasses. It is possible to provide noise control by selecting one or more of the glass panels that make up double-glazed or triple-glazed insulating glass units with acoustic lamination. It is possible to provide noise insulation up to 50 dB across the glass with acoustic laminated glasses that provide both noise control and safety and security.
Dew Point And Condensation
The temperature at which water changes from a vapor to a liquid is the dew point. In other words, as the air gets colder, its ability to hold moisture decreases. Although the amount of water vapor it contains remains the same, as the total amount of water vapor it can hold decreases, it increases by 100 x (water vapor it contains / can hold water vapor) and when 100% is reached, the dew point is reached. After that point, water vapor starts to condense.
Interference Phenomena: (Interference Phenomena)
Glasses placed one after another in insulating glass cause rainbow-like spots, lines and rings to be seen, which change when pressure is applied to the surface of the glass, called Newtonian rings, due to reflection under certain light conditions. This is a natural physical phenomenon. It does not indicate a problem.
In double-glazed or triple-glazed insulating glass units, the edge laths that determine the distance between the glasses are called glass spacer lath or, as it is commonly said, insulating glass lath. Glass gap laths are divided into two in terms of insulation:
Non-insulated aluminum glazing beads
warm edge glazing beads
You can send your questions about the glass spacer strip by using the comment section at the bottom of the page.
The insulating glass unit is formed by keeping two or three individual glass panels at a certain distance from their edges with a spacer and transforming them into a single insulating glass unit. Therefore, transfer of heat is prevented to a large extent, except for the edges. On top of this basic principle, today’s insulating glass keeps visible light at the desired level with spectral selective heat and solar-controlled Solar Low-E coatings, while reducing heat losses considerably. For even better thermal insulation, the space between the glass panels is filled with inert gas. In order for the glass to function in the long term, the sealing of the edge joint of the glass panels must be very good. In addition to holding the glass panels together and determining the distance between them, the spacer strip also provides a reliable seal against the outside with a combination of all-around butyl primary elastic filling and secondary elastic filling, thus preventing moisture ingress from the glass cavity and gas escaping. In addition, the climatic loads acting on the insulating glass put pressure on the edge joint throughout the entire life of the glass, and the edge joints have to withstand this pressure for a long time. While the spacer strip fulfills all these responsibilities, it adversely affects the thermal insulation in the transition area between the glass and the frame, that is, on the glass edges. The aluminum spacer bar, which we call cold edge type, allows heat escape along the glass edges. For this reason, warm edge gap laths were required.
Conventional glass spacer strips are made of aluminum and are called the “cold edge”. The disadvantage of this material is its high thermal conductivity. When the aluminum glass spacer strip is mounted on the insulating glass edge joint, it causes a thermally high conductivity connection between the inner and outer glasses, thus creating linear thermal bridges on windows and facades. Valuable heat energy is transmitted to the outside along the edge of the glass. The window edge on the room side cools. Condensed water collects on the edge of the glass, which can cause mold growth. Condensed water, especially on wood, may damage the frame construction in the long run.
On the other hand, traditional (eg aluminum) spacer strips in insulating glass units in air-conditioned buildings increase the energy consumption for cooling. Moreover, the high transmission capacity of aluminum increases the thermal conductivity coefficient of the window (Uw: Uf of the frame depends on the Ug and Psi values of the glass). For this reason, the glass is not optimally insulated, increasing energy costs.
To prevent all of these, the warm edge glass spacer strip is the right solution.
Warm Edge Spacer
Warm edge glazing bead, in 2, 3 or 4 glazed insulating glass unit (YCU),
Determining the distance between glass panels
Forming the frame at the edges of the insulating glass panels
To reduce the stress effects caused by thermal expansion and pressure differences
To prevent the inert gas, if any, from escaping in the glass cavities,
While performing all the tasks of glass spacer strip, such as, it increases the total thermal insulation of the glass edges and therefore the window, and prevents the formation of condensation on the edges.
The term “Warm Edge” is used to describe interstitial strips in insulating glass units using materials with low thermal conductivity. Here, for example, the combination of stainless steel products, stainless steel or insulating plastics made of structural silicone foam significantly reduces heat losses at the edge of the glass. Thus, higher surface temperatures are obtained at the edge joint on the room side and the glass provides the “Warm-Edge” feature. In this way, heat is saved, the living comfort in the room increases and the risk of water condensation on the glass edges is reduced. At the same time, Warm Edge glazing beads make it feel less cold on the windowsill. Uw value and Ucw value (heat permeability coefficient of facades) are greatly reduced. By using Warm-Edge, the thermal insulation property of a window is significantly improved. The psi value is reduced by 60% and thus the U-value of the complete construction is reduced. The effect of the glazing bead on the total insulation of the window depends on the shape and dimensions of the insulating glass. In contrast to the metal-coloured shiny metallic glazing beads, the plastic warm edge – glass spacer strips are also visually noticeable.
With both thermal improvements in window frames and the use of high-performance insulated glasses, the thermally weak link has started to be conventional insulated glazing beads, which are generally made of aluminum. In the case of insulated windows, if the warm edge glass spacer strip is not used, the temperature on the glass edges can drop below the humidity holding ability of the air and condensation can be observed at these points.
“Warm Edge” glazing beads are made of high performance plastic (TECATHERM® PP), which has approximately 700 times lower heat conductivity than aluminum. A very thin diffusion barrier made of stainless steel, which has 10 times less heat conductivity than aluminum, provides permanent gas tightness. The use of warm edge gap strips in the glass edge joint improves the Uw value of the window by 0.1 to 0.2 W/m².K compared to aluminum glazing beads.
The new “Warm Edge” glazing beads, which are extremely robust and yet very bendable, can be applied using conventional methods in the manufacture of insulating glass, whether in the production of snap-on or bending frames. Specially developed corner brackets and longitudinal connectors ensure convenient and secure connections. This speeds up the manufacturing process and increases efficiency and economy.
As a result, the thermal bridge effect on the glass edges is prevented by the use of hot edge glazing bead, Uw and Ucw values can be improved up to 10%, and the formation of condensation on the edges can be prevented.
Smart glass is the general name of glass whose transparency can be changed when desired by applying voltage or by a mechanical trigger. When voltage is applied, the smart glass changes from the translucent state, which blocks certain wavelengths, to the transparent state, where it allows the passage of light. It eliminates the fading problem by cutting ultraviolet light up to 99%. Some types offer Low-E feature together. They can meet comfort criteria such as heating, cooling and the amount of light in an energy efficient manner with instant adaptation. The color can be changed when desired, and it can allow daylight to enter transparently when desired.
Types of smart glass:
Electrically replaceable devices
suspended particle devices (SPDs: suspended particle devices)
liquid crystals dispersed or dissolved in a liquid polymer (PDLCs: polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices)
on the microscreen
Mechanically replaceable devices
thermochromic glass: thermochromic glasses temperature-triggered and changing glasses
photochromic glass: photochromic glasses light-triggered and changing lenses
The densities of the glasses take different values according to the ratio and type of the main components in their composition. The densities of various glass types range from 2.2 g/cm3 to 3.0 g/cm3. In some special glass types, it reaches densities such as 8 g/cm3. The densities of normal glasses used in buildings are 2.45 g/cm3.
According to the Mohs hardness, the hardness of the glass is between 6 and 7. This level of hardness gives the glass good wear resistance. Thus, glass products with glossy surfaces can maintain their transparency to an almost unlimited extent. In normal window glasses, the Mohs hardness value is slightly lower and is around 5.5.
Transparency is the ratio of the transmitted light to the incident light, and K= 80% – 98% in glasses. Therefore, glass has a higher transparency than most transparent plastic.
The refractive index is directly related to the density of the glass. The refractive index of normal glass is 1.52, while it is 1.60 in crystal glass.
The softening temperature is between 500-600C.
Thermal expansion coefficient: α = 9.1×10-6 cm/cm C
Thermal conductivity coefficient: λ = 0.7-1.1 kcal/mhoC (window glass) λ = 0.035 kcal/mhoC (glass wool)
Heat permeability value: K = 6 kcal/m2hoC (single glass) K=2.3 kcal/m2hoC (double glass with 12 mm gap)
Sound retention value:
= 30 dB (6 mm single glass)
= 32 dB (6 mm double glazing with 12 mm gap)
= 45 dB (6 mm double glazing with 20 mm gap)
Glass is chemically resistant to many substances. Only hydrofluoric acid and some alkaline solutions (melts) affect the glass.
Hydrofluoric acid is used especially in the treatment of glass surfaces, for matting surfaces.
Water, on the other hand, only affects the glass for long periods of time. Glasses that do not contain calcium carbonate are not stable in the face of water. This type of glass is also called water glass.
In order for normal window glasses and any glass that may come into contact with water to be stable against water, lime must be added to its composition.
For glass materials, properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio are important.
Glass is a brittle brittle material and is not resistant to impact and deformation. On the other hand, the compressive strength is quite high.
There is a big difference between the compressive and tensile strengths of brittle materials such as glass. This difference reaches about 20 times in glass material.
The durability of glass objects is determined by the tensile strength. The tensile strength of glass varies between 20-90 MPa, and the compressive strength varies between 500-900 MPa. Glass is a wear-resistant material. The modulus of elasticity of the glass is 45000-100000 MPa. Poisson’s ratio is 0.22.
Glass is a brittle brittle material and is not resistant to impact and deformation. This is because the silicates combine in an irregular structure during the solidification of the glass. Since there is no regular solidification as in the crystal structure, there are no grain boundaries. There are no dislocations to prevent or slow down crack propagation at the time of fracture. Therefore, sudden and brittle fracture is observed.
- TS EN 1279-5+A2 Glass – Used in buildings – Glass-based insulation units – part 5: Conformity assessment
TS 3539-1 EN 1279-1 Glass – Used in buildings – Glass-based insulation units – Part 1: General specifications, dimensional tolerances and rules for defining the insulation unit
TS 3539-2 EN 1279-2 Glass – Used in buildings – Glass-based insulation units – Part 2: Long-term test method and properties for moisture permeability
TS 3539-3 EN 1279-3 Glass – Used in buildings – Glass-based insulation units – part 3: Long-term test method and properties for gas leakage rate and gas concentration tolerances
TS 3539-4 EN 1279-4 Glass – Used in buildings – Glass-based insulation units – Part 4: Test methods for the physical properties of edge sealing materials
TS 3539-6 EN 1279-6 Glass – Used in buildings – Glass-based insulation units – Part 6: Factory production controls and tests repeated at regular intervals
TS EN 12150-1 (English) Glass- Used in buildings- Thermally tempered, soda lime silicate safety glass- Part 1: Recipes- Explanations
TS EN 12150-2 Glass – Used in buildings – Thermally tempered soda lime silicate safety glass – Part 2: Conformity assessment/product standard
TS EN 572-2 Glass – Used in buildings – Basic soda lime silicate glass products – Part 2: Float glass
TS EN 572-5 Glass – Used in buildings – Basic soda lime silicate glass products – Part 5: Patterned glass
TS EN 1096-1 (English) Glass- Used in buildings- Coated glass- Part 1: Definitions and classification
TS EN ISO 12543-1 Glass- Used in buildings- Laminated glass and laminated safety glass- Part 1: Descriptions and explanation of components
TOBB (Turkish Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges) Turkey Glass and Glass Products Industry Assembly
Associations in the Industry:
İMSAD (Association of Construction Materials Industrialists) İZODER (Association of Heat, Sound and Water Insulation) TAYSAD (Association of Vehicle Suppliers)
Chemical Manufacturers Association
CTP-SANDER (Glass Fiber Reinforcement Plastic Industry Association) International Transporters Association
Turkish Foreign Trade Association
Memberships to Import and Export Associations:
Central Anatolian Cement and Soil Products Exporters’ Association DEİK Business Councils
Chambers of Industry and Commerce of Various Provinces
Memberships to Foundations:
ÇEVKO (Environmental Protection Foundation)
Memberships to Foreign Organizations:
ICG – International Commission on Glass
EGM – European Glass Container Manufacturers’ Committee
CPIV – Comite Permanent des Industries du Vere Europeennes
FEVE – Federation Europeenne De Vere D’Emballage
EDG – European Domestic Glass Committee
ESAPA – European Soda Ash Producers’ Association
CEFIC – Conseil Europeen de I’industrie Chimique
APFE – European Glass Fiber Producers Association